Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2019



The Evaluation of the Physical & Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregates (Ra) and its Concrete (Rac)

Authors: Umeonyiagu, Ikechukwu Etienne

Abstract-This study compared the physical and mechanical properties of virgin aggregates (VA) with recycled aggregates (RA) and the corresponding concretes. The recycled aggregate was gotten from a demolished structure at Area H, Owerri and the virgin aggregate was obtained from Lokpa-Ukwu in Abia State Nigeria. Basic properties of both aggregates, such as specific gravity, water absorption, and the aggregate impact values (AIV) were investigated. The sand was well graded with the coefficient of uniformity, Cu of 2.0; coefficient of gradation, Cc of 1.02; average bulk density of 1564kg/m3 and average specific gravity of 2.65. The virgin aggregate has AIV of 25%; water absorption of the virgin aggregate was 5.36%, 7.37% and 6.16%. AIV of the recycled aggregate, RA, were 25.97%, 28.17% and 22.78%; and the water absorption readings were 6.64 %, 6.83% and 6.47%. Concrete was prepared with both aggregates at the concrete mix ratio of 1.2:4 and similar workability was ensured. Mechanical properties of the concretes such as compressive strength and slump were examined. Eighteen concrete cubes were cast and tested for compressive strength on 7, 14 and 28 days age of curing. The average compressive strength obtained for recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were 19.08N/mm2, 22.53N/mm2 and 26.50N/mm2 and that of virgin aggregates concrete were 19.65N/mm2, 23.20N/mm2 and 27.29N/mm2. The slump test value of the RAC was 85mm and that of virgin concrete was 83mm.The 28 days average dry density of both recycled aggregate concrete and virgin aggregate concrete were 2400kg/m3. From the tests conducted, it was realized that the recycled aggregate concrete differed a little from the virgin aggregate concrete and can also be used in-place of virgin aggregate concretes.

Keyword- Recycled aggregate, bulk density, concrete mix, compressive strength, dry density


[1] de Brito,J. and Saika, N (2013) Recycled Aggregate in Concrete, Use of Industrial, Construction and Demolition Waste, Springer-Verlag, London.

[2] Fernando Pacheco-Torgal, (2018) Handbook of Recycled Concrete and Demolition Waste, Yining Ding, Elsevier Science.

[3] Rossmanith, H.P., (2002) Fracture and Damage of Concrete and Rock, FDCR-2 - CRC Press Book.

[4] Lauritzen, E.K. and de Pauw,C., (2004) Disaster planning, Structural Assessment, Demolition and Recycling, Volume 9, Rilem Report, CRC Press.

[5] Enric Vazquez, Charles F. Hendrik, Gabriella M.T. Jannsen (2004) PRO 40: International RILEM Conference on the use of Recycled Materials in Buildings and Structures, Volume 1, Volume 40 of RILEM proceedings/PRO.: RILEM Proceedings, RILEM Publications.

[6] Hui Guo, Caijun Shi, Xuemao Guan, Jianping Zhu, Yahong Ding, Tung-Chai Ling, Haibo Zhang, Yuli Wang (2018) Durability of recycled aggregate concrete – A review Cement and Concrete Composites 89, pp.251-259.

[7] Gluzhge, P.J., Gidrotekhnicheskoye Stroitel'stvo (1946) The Work of Scientific Research Institute, vol. 4, pp. 27-28.

[8] Xiao, J.J., Li, W.G., Fan, Y.H., Huang, X. (2012) An overview of study on recycled aggregate concrete in China (1996-2011), Construct. Build. Mater. 31 364 - 383.
[9] ACI 555 (2001), Removal and Reuse of Hardened Concrete, ACI 555R-01, ACI Committee 555 Report, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, 26 pages
[10] Portland Cement Association, (2018) Recycled aggregate concrete, Center of Excellence for Airport Technology at the University of Illinois, USA.

[11] FHWA, Transportation Applications of Recycled Concrete Aggregate, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., September 2004, 47 pages.

[12] Hansen, T.C., (2014), Recycling of Demolished Concrete and Masonry, CRC Press, 2014.

[13] Zhang, J.K., Shi, C.J., Li, Y.K., Pa, X.Y., Poon, C.S., Xie, Z.B. (2015) Performance enhancement of recycled concrete aggregates through carbonation J. Mater.Civil. Eng., 27 (11), pp. 1-7.

[14] Zhang, J.K., Shi, C.J., Li, Y.K., Pan, X.Y., Poon, C.S., Xie, Z.B. (2015) Influence of carbonated recycled concrete aggregate on properties of cement mortar Construct. Build. Mater., 98, pp. 1-7.

[15] Shi, C.J., Wu, Z.M., Cao, Z.J., Ling, T.C., Zheng, J.L. (2018) Performance of mortar prepared with recycled concrete aggregate enhanced by CO2 and pozzolan slurry Cem. Concr. Comp., 86, pp. 130-138.

[16] BS EN 197-1 (2000) Cement Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements, British Standard Institute, London.

[17] BS EN 1008 (2002) Mixing water for concrete: - Specification for sampling, testing and assessing the suitability of water, including water recovered from processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete, British Standard Institute London.

[18] BS 3148 (1980) Methods of test for Water for making concrete (including notes on the suitability of the water, British Standard Institute London

[19] BS EN 932: Part 1 (1997) Test for general properties of aggregate. Method of sampling, British Standard Institute. London.

[20] BS 812: Part 1(1975) Sampling, shape, size and classification. Methods for sampling and testing of mineral aggregates, sands and fillers, British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[21] BS 882 (1992) Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete, British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[22] BS 410: Part 2 (1986) Specification for test sieves. British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[23] BS EN 12350 (2000). Testing Fresh Concrete –Slump test, British Standard Institute, London.

[24] British Standard 1881: Part 108 (1983) Method for making test cubes from fresh concrete,British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[25] British Standard 1881: Part 111 (1983) Method of normal curing of test specimens (20 oC), British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[26] British Standard 1881: Part 116 (1983) Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes, British Standards Institution Publication, London.





Responsibility of Radiation Detectors

Authors: Dr. Albashir Zomrawi

Abstract- Number of detectors that can be used to detect gamma rays and x-rays. Saphymo and Berthold detectors are some of them. In this research work, a comparison study has been carried out between both detectors and efficiently and their fields of application were determined. Results showed that, Saphymo detector is more sensitive to low radiation where, Berthold detector is suitable to detect higher radiation. On the other hand, the uncertainty level of Saphymo detector was found to be better than Berthold detector.

Keywords: Berthold detector, Detector, Ionizing, Radiation, Saphymo detector, uncertainty.


[1] A. Kamal (2014), Particle Physics, Graduate Texts in Physics, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-38661-9_1, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

[2] Dutra R. Silva (2014) Ionizing Radiation Detectors Address all correspondence, Materials Spectroscopy Group - GEM, Physics Institute - INFIS, Federal University of Uber‐ landia - UFU, Brazil.

[3] M. Miglierini (2004), Detectors of Radiation E. Wigner Course on Reactor Physics Experiments, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology Slovak University of Technology Bratislava, Slovakia.

[4] Marcia Dutra R. Silva (2015), Ionizing Radiation Detectors, Materials Spectroscopy Group - GEM, Physics Institute - INFIS, Federal University of Uber‐landia - UFU, Brazil, © 2015

[5] Nicholas Tsoulfanidis (1995), Measurement and Detection of Radiation University of Missouri-Rolla, Second Edition, Taylor & Francis

[6] University of Florida, Division of Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Control and Radiological Services Department, Radiation safety short course, (2005), Communicore: J. Hillis Miller Health Center.

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Linear Analysis of a Cryo Propellant Tank

Authors: Anu Retnakar, Ajin A. S.

Abstract- There are many stages for satellite launch vehicles. Among them cryo stages use fuels or oxidizers at low temperatures. Propellants are stored in propellant tanks. Tank will be subjected to pressure loads. A cryo propellant tank having liquid hydrogen was modelled axisymmetrically using ANSYS. Linear analysis is performed on it. From the results it was obtained that the equivalent von Mises stress exceeded ultimate tensile strength.

Keywords- Propellant, linear analysis, yield strength, axisymmetric modeling, plane 82.


[1] Craig A. Stephens, Gregory J. Hanna. 1991. Thermal Modeling and Analysis of a Cryogenic Tank Design Exposed to Extreme Heating Profiles. NASA Contractor Report 186012.

[2] Walter H. Tam, Gary H. Kawahara, Donald E. Jaekle Jr, Laurie W. Larsson. Design and Manufacture of a Propellant Tank Assembly. AIAA 2000-3444.

[3] David Heckman, 1998. Finite Element Analysis of Pressure Vessels. University of California. Mentor: Gene Massion, Mark Greise Summer.

[4] Seo Young Kim, Byung Ha Kang, ―Thermal Design Analysis of a Liquid Hydrogen Vessel‖, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol.25(2), 133 – 141.

[5] M. Hosseini, I. Dincer, G.F. Naterer, M.A. Rosen, ―Thermodynamic Analysis of Filling Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen Storage Tanks‖, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 37(6), 2012, 5063 - 5071.

[6] George P.Sutton. 1990. Rocket Propulsion Elements. 7th edition. Wiley – Interscience publication.

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Mathematical Model for the Prediction of the Compressive Strength Characteristics of Concrete Made with Sugar Cane Bagasse ASH (SCBA)

Authors: Ikechukwu Etienne Umeonyiagu

Abstract—This research examined the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) as a supplementary material in concrete. The coarse aggregates were granite chippings from Abakaliki, Nigeria and fine aggregates from Amansea River, also in Nigeria. The sugarcane bagasse was from a Sugar Processing Plant, also in Nigeria. The aggregates were tested for physical and mechanical properties based on BS 812: Part 2 & Part 3:1975. A total number of 90 cubes were made, cured and tested according to BS 1881: Part 108; BS 1881: Part 111 & BS 1881: Part 116. Scheffe’s (5, 2) lattice polynomial was used to develop a mathematical model for the optimization of the compressive strength of the sugarcane bagasse concrete at 28th day. The mathematical model developed was Ŷ = 22.13 X1(2X1-1) + 29.08 X2(2X2-1)+ 22.52 X3(2X3-1)+ 15.59 X4(2X4-1)+ 15.15X5(2X5-1) + 98.68 X1 X2 + 83.76 X1 X3 +72.64X1 X4 + 91.44 X1 X5 + 97.68 X2 X3 +54.68X2X4+57.12X2X5+ 68.1668X3X4 + 80.04X3X5 + 58.88X4X5. The student’s ttest and the Fisher test were used to test the adequacy of this model. The strengths predicted by the model were in complete agreement with the experimentally obtained values and the null hypothesis was satisfied.

Keywords— sugarcane bagasse, aggregate, model, Fisher’s test, granite


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[2] Shetty, M.S., (2014)Concrete Technology, Theory and Practice, S.Chand, New Delhi.

[3] Umeonyiagu, I.E., (2013) Mathematical Models for the prediction of the strength characteristics of concrete with coarse aggregates of variable sources, Unpublished works, Nnamdi Azikiwe University.

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[8] BS 812: Part 1 (1975)Sampling, shape, size and classification. Methods for sampling and testing of mineral aggregates, sands and fillers. British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[9] BS 410 (1986) Specification for test sieves. British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[10] BS 812: Part 2 (1975)Methods for sampling and testing of mineral aggregates, sands and fillers. Physical properties. British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[11] ASTM. Standard C 131 (1976)Tests for Resistance to Abrasion of Small Size Coarse Aggregate by Use of the Los Angeles Machine. American Society for Testing and Materials Publication, New York.

[12] BS 882 (1992) Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete. British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[13] BS 3148 (1980) Tests for water for making concrete. British Standards Institution Publication,London.

[14] British Standard 1881: Part 108 (1983) Method for making test cubes from fresh concrete. British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[15] British Standard 1881: Part 111 (1983) Method of normal curing of test specimens (20 oC). British Standards Institution Publication, London.

[16] British Standard 1881: Part 116 (1983)Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes. British Standards Institution Publication, London.

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Wave Statistics of Digha Coast and Beach Profile, West Bengal, India

Authors: Nayan Dey, Dr. Purnima Shukla

Abstract—The aforesaid research paper deals with wave properties and its impact on beach shaping. Through this research work wave profile of the Digha coast has been sketched. Wave is undulation of sea water which shaped the coastal beach profile. To analyse, the study of wave spectrum is important. Wave spectrum is depends on its’ properties viz. wave length (L), wave height (H), wave amplitude (A), relative depth (d), wave period (T), wave frequency (f), radiant frequency (σ), wave celerity (C), wave height during breaking (Hb), crest velocity of breaking wave (Cb) and velocity of breaking wave. Wave energy flux rate on beach is important determining factor for beach shaping and beach morphodynamics.

Keywords— Wave Properties, Beach, Wave Spectrum, Radiant Frequency.


[1] Alam, M., et al., (2003): An overview of the sedimentary geology of the Bengal basin in relation to the regional tectonic framework and basin-fill history, Sedimentary Geology, vol. 155, Iss.3, 179-208.

[2] Acharyya, S.K., et al., (2000): Arsenic toxicity of ground water in parts of the Bengal basin in India and Bangladesh: the role of Quaternary Stratigraphy and Holocene sea-level fluctuation, Environmental Geology, vol. 39, Iss. 10, 1127-1137.

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[5] Bird, E (2008): Coastal Geomorphology – An Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, USA, 133p.

[6] Constantin, A.(2001): On the Deep Water Wave Motion, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., vol. 34, pp. 1405–1417.

[7] Davis, R.A. and Hayes, M.O. (1984): What is a Wave-dominated Coast?, Marine Geology, vol. 60, pp 313-329.

[8] Dean, R. G. and Dalrymple, R. A., (1991): Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore.

[9] Dey, N., Shukla, P., (2017): Physical carrying capacity assessment in coastal tourist destination – a case study in igha, West Bengal; Economic Development & Environment (Edited book Volume), Vasundhara Publication, Gorakhpur, 102-106.

[10] Dey, N. (2018): Feasibility assessment of Goa coastal wave energy to generate electricity as a renewable energy with a proposed design to energy conversion system, Sustainable Development: A Dynamic Perspective (Edited Book Volume), Anjan Publisher, Kolkata, vol. 1, 143-153.

[11] Dey, N. and Shukla, P. (February 2019): Sedimentary textural characteristics of Digha coastal beach, a part of Kanthi coast, W.B., India; International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, Iss. 2, pp. 1-8.

[12] Jana, S., Paul, A.K., (2018): Genetical Classification of Deltaic and Non Deltaic Sequences of Landforms of Subarnarekha Middle Course and Lower Course Sections in Odisha and Parts of West Bengal with Application of Geospatial Technology, Journal of Coastal Sciences, vol. 5, Iss.1, 16-26.

[13] Janssen, P., (2004): The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.

[14] Faizal, M. et al. (2011): Experimental Investigation of Water Wave Characteristics in a Wave Channel, International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research.

[15] Goodbred, S.L., Kuehl, S.A., (2000): The significance of large sediment supply, active tectonism, and eustasy on margin sequence development: Late Quaternary stratigraphy and evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, Sedimentary Geology, vol. 133, Iss. 3, 227-248.

[16] Harris, D.L., (1976): Wind-Generated Waves For Laboratory Studies, U.S. Army, Corps Of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center Kingman Building Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060

[17] Hayes, M.O. (1979): Barrier Island Morphology as a Function of Tidal and Wave Regime, In S.P. Leatherman (Editor), Barrier Islands, Academic Press, New York, N.Y., pp 1-27.

[18] Hoque, A., (2008): Studies of Water Level Rise by Entrained Air in the Surf Zone,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32, pp. 973–979.

[19] Hutchison, C.S., (1989): Geological Evolution of South-east Asia; Oxford: Clarendon Press, vol. 13, p. 368.

[20] Komar, P.D. (1976): Beach Processes and Sedimentation, Englewood Cliffs, Nj: Prentice-Hall.

[21] Masselink, G. and Short, A.D. (1993): The Effect of Tide Range on Beach Morphodynamics and Morphology: A Conceptual Beach Model, Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 9, Iss.3, pp. 785-800.

[22] Mondal, C., Dey, N., (2018): Carrying capacity assessment in coastal tourism center: a case study in Digha, West Bengal; Sustainable Development: A Dynamic Perspective (Edited Book Volume), Anjan Publisher, Kolkata, vol. 1, 175-182.

[23] Morley, C.K., (2002): A tectonic model for the Tertiary evolution of strike-slip faults and rift basins in SE Asia, Tectonophysics, vol. 347, Iss.4, 189-215.

[24] Mukaro, R. et al. (June 2013): Wave Height and Wave Velocity Measurements in the Vicinity of the Break Point in Laboratory Plunging Waves, Journal of Fluids Engineering, vol. 135, pp. 1 -13.

[25] Mukherjee, A., et al., (2009): Geologic, geomorphic and hydrologic framework and evolution of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh; Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 34, Iss.3, 227-244.

[26] Parthasarathy, P., et al., (2016): Sediment dynamics and depositional environment of Coleroon river sediments, Tamilnadu, Southeast coast of India; Journal of Coastal Science, vol. 3, Iss. 2, pp. 1-7.

[27] Paul, A., (2002): Coastal Geomorphology and Environment. ACB Publications, Kolkata.

[28] Pethick, J., (1984): An Introduction to Coastal Geomorphology, Edward Arnold, London.

[29] Short, A.D. (1991): Macro-Meso Tidal Beach Morphodynamics – An Overview, Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 7, pp 417-436.

[30] Russell, D., Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion, Available at web, (http://www.gmi.edu/»drussell/Demos/waves/wavemotion.html, 2001).

[31] Sikder, A.M., Alam, M.M., (2003): 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures and structural development of the eastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh; Sedimentary Geology, vol. 155, Iss.3, 209-226.

[32] Stokes, G. G. (1847): On the theory of oscillatory waves. Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 8, pp. 441-445.

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Computer Based Demonstrations of Structural Analysis for Engineering Students

Authors: M.C Arimanwa, I.E Umeonyiagu, N.P Ogbonna

Abstract—This study developed a standalone application as replacement for over a hundred existing Structural analysis applets, to serve as an interactive learning environment for engineering students in structural engineering course in any tertiary institution. The developed standalone application consist of series of Java based lessons and exercises as well as simulation program, designed to explore, communicate, and test various aspects of Structural Analysis curriculum. It can be installed as a normal program through its executable file (.exe) or shared over the internet in zip format. Examples of the structural analysis topics covered include: Analysis of
trusses and framed structures, shear, moment and deflection analysis of beams; analysis of determinate and indeterminate trusses, influence lines for beams, analysis of Dams and Retaining Walls. The developed program eliminates the security issues posed by the inability of Java applets to run smoothly on recent versions of most web browsers as a result of the deprecation of the applet tags which is present in old web browsers that supports Java. Validation of the developed program was done by comparing its results with standard literatures which confirmed that the results are very close and accurate.

Keywords— Wave Properties, Beach, Wave Spectrum, Radiant Frequency.


[1] Kamthan J. 1999. Dynamical Systems Education on the WWW, Master’s Thesis, Concordia

[2] O’Neil E.K. and Grisham, 2000, Java Applets: Powerful Tools for Interactive Learning in the College Curriculum,Journal of Computing in Higher Education Spring

[3] Rojiani K.B and Schottler 2004, Java Applets for Structural Analysis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Blacksburg, Virginia

[4] Mohamed Othmaned et al 2000, Computer Based Demonstrations of Statistical Quality Control For Engineering Students, Journal of Computing in Higher Education.

[5] Corder .G, 2005, Teaching With Applets,Journal of Science College Teaching.

[6] Rojiani K.B and Raju S.V.N, Java Applets for Teaching Finite Element Analysis, 2006. Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering.

[7] SAP-2000 (1997). Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures, Input File Format, Computer and Structurs,Inc.,Berkeley, California

[8] Brown, L. D., Hua, H., and Gao, C. 2003. A widget framework for Augmented interaction in SCAPE.

[9] Khurmi, R.S, Theory of Structures, S. Chand

[10] Rajput, R. K. 2004. Strength of Materials (Mechanics of Solids) S. Chand

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