Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2019


A Normalized Mathematical Model for Optimum Tilt Angles Based on the Desired Solar Fraction

Authors: Ala Elwani, Elhadi Dekam, Khairy Agha

Abstract— Abstract--This paper presents a normalized mathematical model that determines the basic factors influencing domestic solar water heating systems, and in specific, discusses the optimum design time as well as the optimum tilt angle of the solar collector, bearing in mind the contribution of the energy obtained to meet the targeted load. The paper considers the required thermal capacity that should be provided by the solar collector. The study is thoroughly based on normalized mathematical parameters. In the case of 100% solar contribution, for heated water temperature of 45oC and consumption of 100 liters/Person per day for a given house sited at Tripoli city, 32.68°N latitude, the optimum design time is the month of December, the optimum tilt angle is 75°, and the solar collector area, fulfilling the following specifications: glazed type, Fr. (τα) = 0.58, a (d Fr UL=4.0(W/m2.oC), is 2.83 m2. The results designate an optimum tilt angle of 50°, which is the same angle obtained by the traditional famous technique, and solar collector area of 1.6 m2 if up to 80% of demand is to be covered by solar energy. Results obtained by RETScreen commercial computer package are compared and validated.

Keywords- Capacity Of Storage Unit, Domestic Water Heating Systems, Optimum Tilt Angle, Solar Collector Area, Solar Fraction.


[1] Agha, k. R. and Sbita, M. N., “On the sizing Parameters of Alone Solar Energy Systems”, Journal of Applied Energy, Vol. 65, 2000, PP. 73-84.

[2] Khasawneh, Q. A., Damrab, Q. A., and Salmanb, O. H. B., Determining the Optimum Tilt Angle for Solar Applications in Northern Jordan, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Volume 9 Number 3, June-2015, Pages 187 – 193.

[3] Zang, H., Wei, M. G. Z., and Sun, G., Determination of the Optimal Tilt Angle of Solar Collectors for Different Climates of China, Journal Of Sustainability, 11 July 2016.

[4] Wessley, J. J. G., Narciss Starbell, R., and Sandhya, S., Modelling of Optimal Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors Across Eight Indian Cities, International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2017.

[5] Baccoli, R., Mastino, C.C., Innamorati, R., Serra, L., Curreli, S., Ghiani, E., Ricciu, R., and Marini, M., A mathematical model of a solar collector augmented by a flat plate above reflector: Optimum inclination of collector and reflector, Elsevier Ltd., 2015.

[6] Wang, S., and Hong, B., Optimum Design of Tilt Angle and Horizontal Direction of Solar Collectors under Obstacle’s Shadow for Building Applications, Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, 2015, 3, 60-67.

[7] Beckman W. A., Klein S. A., and Duffie J. A., A design procedure for solar heating systems, Solar Energy, 1976; 18:113.

[8] Klein S. A. and Beckman W. A., A general design method for closed-loop solar energy systems, Solar Energy, 1979; 22:269.

[9] Mean monthly solar radiation measurements during the period of 1981-1984, information department, Center for Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli, Libya.

[10] Mean monthly temperature data during the period of 1945-1984, meteorological department, international Report, Tripoli, Libya.

[11] Hsieh, J. S., Solar Energy Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1986).

[12] Elwani, A. B., “On Sizing The Main Components Of Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems Under Different Meteorological And Load Conditions”, M. Sc. Thesis, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, University Of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya, 2013.

[13] RETScreen energy model, Solar Water Heating Project, www.retscreen .com




























Assessment and Control Measures for Jayanti Stream to Control Water Pollution of Panchganga River, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Rohan Sandeep Ghatage

Abstract - Water pollution is one of the most leading causes of public health issues and mortality. It is mainly the outcome of urbanization and overpopulation and is caused due to over utilization of fertilizers by farmers, sewage from hotels, hospitals and homes and industries in the city. Present paper is a case study of Kolhapur city in Maharashtra. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the problem of water pollution of panchaganga river due to urbanization and industrialization and its impact on public health in Kolhapur city. As more than half the polluted water comes from the jayanti stream to the panchganga river so jayanti stream has been considered as the major point of research and an innovative concept is suggested to deal with this problem effectively. The polluted water of Panchganga has led to spread some dangerous infectious diseases like Diarrhea, jaundice, gastro and fever etc. in Kolhapur city. Therefore; there is a need of government intervention with the help of active peoples’ participation.

Keywords – Urbanization; mortality; Industrialization.


 For Catchment area of Panchganga river –
[1] A copy of district map

[2] Pollution abatment of Panchganga River

 For Kolhapur –
[1] Environmental Status Report of Kolhapur 2012-13

[2] Environmental status report 2008-09

[3] Measures to reduce pollution of river Panchganga June 2012

[4] Panchganga river pollution report 2009

[5] Temporary arrangements made to manage wastewater flowing through nallas 2012-2013

[6] Nalla map

[7] Nagrikancha Paryavarniya Jahirnama

[8] MPCB river monitoring stations and Water quality data of River water, CETP, STP

[9] Patil S. et al Study of Physicochemical and biological characteristics of lakes from Shivaji University Campus, Maharashtra, Advances in Applied Science Research, 2011, 2 (6):505-519

[10] Report on Flows and Characteristics of sewage in Nalla basins in Kolhapur 2003-04 prepared by K.I.T’ college of Engineering, Kolhapur

[11] Kolhapur Municipal Corporation “ Jayanti nalla Shuddhikaran Yojana”

 Recommended Readings –
[1] Griffiths, Richard A. (1995). “ Soil – washing technology and practice. ” Journal of Hazardous Materials. 40. 175 – 189

[2] USEPA. (1993, November). “ Innovative Site Remediation Technology : Soil washing/Soil Flushing. ” EPA 542-B-012.
 Other references -
[1] Middlebrooks, E.J. (1982). Wastewater Stabilization Lagoon Design, Performance and Upgrading. Mcmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-949500-8

[2] Ashworth, J; Skinner, M (19 December 2011). “ Waste Stabilization Pond Design Manual “ (PDF). Power and Water Corporation. Retrieved 11 February 2017.

[3] Hosetti B.B.; Kulkarni A.R.; Patil H.S. (1994), Water quality in Jayanti Nalla and Panchganga at Kolhapur. Indian J.Environ. Hlth. 36(2): 124-127.

[4] Johnson, R.L.; et al. (Nov 1993). "An Overview of In Situ Air Sparging". Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13 (4): 127–135. doi:10.1111/j.1745 – 6592.1993.tb00456.x

[5] Bass, David H; et al. (2000). "Performance of air sparging systems: a review of case- studies". Journal of Hazardous Materials. Elsevier. 72 (2–3): 101–119 doi:10.1016/S0304-3894(99)00136-3.

[6] Marley, Michael C.; Hazebrouck, David J.; Walsh, Matthew T. (1992-05-01). "The - Application of In Situ Air Sparging as an Innovative Soils and Ground Water Remediation Technology". Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation. 12 (2): 137– 145. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.1992.tb00044.x. ISSN 1745-6592

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Application of Social Networks for Human Resources

Authors: Dr. Maryam Haghshenas, Abouzar Sadeghzadeh

Abstract—Social media is changing the way people interact and share information. LinkedIn, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and other social media are revolutionizing the way we communicate, and numerous organizations are struggling to respond. Given the potential risks and benefits of social media in the workplace, it is critical for managers to develop policies and procedures governing its appropriate use. This paper will identify key issues and pose strategic questions to help guide managers in making more informed decisions when navigating social media issues in their organizations. After a brief introduction, current most popular social websites and tools are described concisely. Relationships between social media and human resources are then discussed. Utilizing social media in organizations are not without risks which are thoroughly talked about further along with the benefits of such websites for recruitment. Lastly, suggestions are made for companies that are considering utilizing social media and for companies that have already benefitted from such networks to improve their strategies.

Keywords—human resources, recruitment, social media, workforce


[1] Robert,E. Ployhard, Ph.D. (2006). Social media in the workplace: issues and strategic questions. SHRM Foundation: shaping the future of HR.

[2] Karen, I., & Sarah, .P. (2012). Human resources and social media. KMPG international cooperative.

[3] Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1): 99–120.

[4] Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51: 1173–1182.

[5] Becker, B., & Huselid, M. A. (1998). High performance work systems and firm performance: A synthesis of research and managerial implications. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management, vol. 16: 53–101. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

[6] Bliese, P. D. (1998). Team size, ICC values, team-level correlations: A simulation. Organizational Research Methods, 1: 355–373.

[7] Burt, R. S. (1982). Toward a Structural Theory of Action: Network Models of Social Structure, Perception and Action (Quantitative studies in social relations). New York: Academic Press.

[8] Cohen, D., & Prusak, L. (2001). In good company: How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press

[9] Snell, S. A., Youndt, M. A., Wright, P. M. (1996). Establishing a framework for research in strategic human resource management: Merging resource theory and organizational learning. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resource management, vol. 14: 61–90. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

[10] Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory Classics in Organization and Management Series. New York: McGraw-Hill. Transaction Publishers, 1967.

[11] Welbourne, T. M., & Andrews, A. O. (1996). Predicting the performance of initial public offerings: Should human resource management be in the equation? Academy of Management Journal, 39: 891–919.

[12] Wright, P. M., Dunford, B. B., & Snell, S. A. (2001). Human resources and the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27: 701–721.

[13] Bartram, D. (2000). Internet recruitment and selection: kissing frogs to find princes. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Volume 8, Issue 4, December 2000, Pages 261–274

[14] Doherty, R.D. (2010). Getting social with recruitment, Strategic HR Review. 9(6), 11-15.International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 261-274.

[15] Feldman, D.C., & Klaas, B.S. (2002). Internet job hunting: A field study of applicant experiences with on-line recruiting. Human Resources Management, 41(2), 175-192.

[16] Florian, W. (2009). E-Recruitment Vs. Traditional Recruitment: A Descriptive Analysis, Front Cover · Florian Wuttke. GRIN Verlag, Jan 14, 2009 - Social Science - 17 pages.

[17] Jobvite. (2012). 2012 Social Job Seeker Survey. London, Forum Jobs, Inc. September 2012

[18] Jason, B. (2013). 20 Mobile Recruiting Insights #mrec13, September 2013. Retrieved from http://www.talenthq.com/2013/09/20-mobile-recruiting-insights

[19] Jason, B. (2013). 45 Mobile Recruiting Tips and Trends From #mrec, September 2013. Retrieved from http://www.talenthq.com/2013/09/45-mobile-recruiting-tips-and-trends-from-mrec

[20] Sarah, P. (2012). With 40% of Traffic from Outside the U.S., Glassdoor Raises $20M Series D to Expand Internationally, October 2012. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2012/10/31/with-40-of-traffic-from-outside-u-s-glassdoor-raises-20-million-series-d-to-expand-internationally

[21] Ryan, H. (2013). Inside HMV’s Twitter Disaster: What went wrong (and how to keep your company safe), February 2013. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20130214190038-2967511-inside-hmv-s-twitter-disaster-what-went-wrong-and-how-to-keep-your-company-safe

[22] Juilo, R. (2013). HMV tweets their own sacking, January 2013. Retrieved from https://www.marketingtechnews.net/news/2013/feb/01/hmv-tweets-their-own-sacking

[23] Luis, S. (2013). 2013: The Year of Social HR, January 2013. Retrieved from http://www.elsua.net/2013/01/09/2013-the-year-of-social-hr-2

[24] Lars, S. (2012). Three Days, Three Key Themes: My Review of Talent Connect 2012‖, October 2012. Retrieved from https://business.linkedin.com/talent-solutions/blog/2012/10/talent-connect-2012-3-themes

[25] Mike, W. (2012). Making the Quantum Leap: UPS Social Media Recruitment ROI 2012, January 2012. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/MikeVangel/real-social-media-recruitment-roi-from-ups-11278020

[26] Bernard, M. (2013). People Management: Data and Analytics Will Change It Forever, November 2013. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20131111071432-64875646-2-keys-to-a-very-different-people-management

[27] Globoforce (2012). SHRM/Globforce Employee Recognition survey FALL 2012 Report. The business impact of employee recognition, 2012

[28] Haimeecode. (2012). The State of Employer Branding, October 2012. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/haimeecode/state-of-employer-brand

[29] Jen, D. (2012). How to use Social Media for Employer Branding, July 2012. Retrieved from https://www.lever.co/blog/how-to-use-social-media-for-employer-branding

[30] Vivian, G. (2013). Gamification’ Techniques Increase Your Employees’ Ability To Learn By 40%, September 2013. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/gamification-techniques-increase-your-employees-ability-to-learn-by-40-2013-9

[31] Jeanne, M. (2013). Gamification In Leadership Development: How Companies Use Gaming To Build Their Leader Pipeline, September 2013. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeannemeister/2013/09/30/gamification-in-leadership-development-how-companies-use-gaming-to-build-their-leader-pipeline/#7bfa74325a5

[32] Oxford Economics (2012).The Digital Transformation of People Management‖, March 2012. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordeconomics.com/my-oxford/projects/129033, An executive summary produced in collaboration with SAP

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[34] Tsai, W. (2002). Social structure of "coopetition" within a multiunit organization: Coordination,

[35] Competition, and intra organizational knowledge sharing. Organization Science, 13(2), 179-190.




























Textural Characterization of Beach Sediments along Ibeno Beach, a Sector of Atlantic Ocean, Southeastern, Nigeria.

Authors:Asukwo Essien Itam, Edak Efiom, Samuel Augustine Ikpe, Maurice Petter Effiong, Wisdom Josph Usoro, Michael Okon Umoh, Michael Ekuru Omeka

Abstract-- Sediments were sourced from 16 stations along the Ibeno Beach sector of the Atlantic Ocean located in Southeastern Nigeria. The areas of interest included; Inua Eyet Ikot, Nta Ikang and Itak Iban. The textural characteristics of the sediments include: mean grain size (Mz) which ranges from 2.30 to 3.57 with a mean of 2.77 infering fine grain to very fine sands. The graphic standard deviation (Sorting, σI) has a mean value of 0.57 ±0.10 and ranges from 0.38 to 0.70 inferring moderately well sorted to well sorted sediments. Sediments Skewness(SKI) and kurtosis (KG), have ranges values of -0.48 - 0.49 and 0.78-1.50 with mean values of 0.08 ± 0.21 and 0.92 ± 0.22 respectively depicting sediments that are dominantly coarse skewed in nature with kurtosis giving the scenario of platykurtic – leptokurtic. Based on the calculated discriminant function, the sediment of the study area was derived from shallow agitated marine environment (subtidal environment) with some contribution from aeolian processes

Keywords: Discriminant function,Ibeno Beach,Sediments,Shallow agitated marine environment,Textural characteristics


[1] Friedman G. M., and Sanders J. E., 1978. Principles of Sedimentology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 72

[2] Sathasivama, S,. Kankaraa, R. S., Selvana,S.C., Muthusamya, M ., Samykannua,A. and Bhoopathia , R.,.2015.Textural Characterization of Coastal Sediments along Tamil Nadu Coast, East Coast of India. 8th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coast. Procedia Engineering. Elsevier,116: 794 – 801

[3] George,U; Efiom ,E and Efanga ,O. 2017. Effects of wind speed and direction on ocean waves along Ibeno Atlantic Ocean. International Journal of Advanced Science and Research .2(4);113-118

[4] Folk R. L. and Ward, W. C. 1957. Brazos River Bar: A study in the significance of grain size parameters. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. (27), 1957,3-26.

[5] Folk R.L (1984). Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Hemphil Publishing Company, Austin Texas, pp190.

[6] Itam, A.E; Inyang, D.O; Effiong, M. P;Ukot A. A andUdoaka E.O., 2017.Textural Characteristics of Sediments Along the Qua Iboe River /Estuary Bank, South East, Nigeria. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering and Research(IJRTER), 3(1);198-207

[7] Friedman. G.M., 1961). Distinction between dune, beach and river sands from their textural characteristics. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Tulsa. USA.31 (2): 514-529

[8] Blott S. J., and Pye, K., 2001. GRADSTAT: A grain size distribution and statistics package for the analysis ofunconsolidated sediments. Earth surfaces processes and landforms, 26, 1237-1248

[9] Karuna T; Jagannadha,T,I ; Rao,M.I; Ganesh ,B.I; Avatharam,P; and Naidu,A., 2013 ..Studies on textural characteritics of ErraKalvaRiver,West Godavari District,Andhra Pradesh,East Coast of India.International Journal Geomatics and Geosciences.4(2).

[10] Chauhan, O.S., 1986. Behaviour of Grain Size Characteristics on Relrctive and Dissipative Foreshore, Broken Bay, Australia. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology ,52 pp431-450

[11] Sahu, B., 1964. Depositional mechanism from the size analysis of clastic Sediments. Journalof Sedimentary Petrology, 34(1), 73-83. Tulsa

[12] Itam, A. E; Digha, O. N; Effiong, M. P and Ukot, A. A, 2016. Sources contribution to sediment along the Qua Iboe River/Estuary Bank, South East Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, 4(5): 01-06.

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Influence of Elastic and Viscous Effects on Elasto-Viscoplastic Materials

Authors: Giovanni M. Furtado, Renato da Rosa Martins

Abstract— We use a recently proposed model (de Souza Mendes et al. 2011) for elasto-viscoplastic materials to analyze inertia flows inside a lid-driven cavity. The constitutive equation is a modified version of the viscoelastic Oldroyd-B model in which the viscosity, relaxation and retardation times depend on the material struc-turing level. The solution is obtained numerically using a three-field Galerkin least-squares-like formulation proposed by Behr et al. 1993, in terms of extra-stress, pressure and velocity . The performance of the constitutive equation and the combined effects of, elasticity and viscoplasticity are analyzed. Results focus on the determination of the yielded and unyielded regions revealing striking effects of these parameters on the flow field.

Keywords—viscoplastic fluid, elasto-viscoplastic model, yield stress, lid-driven cavity, stabilized methods.


[1] Souza Mendes, P.R., and Dutra, E.S.S., 2004, “Viscosity Function for Yield-Stress Liquids”, Applied Rheology, Vol. 14, pp. 296-302.

[2] Souza Mendes, P.R., 2007, “Dimensionless non-Newtonian fluid mechanics”, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech., Vol. 147, pp. 109-116.

[3] Souza Mendes, P.R., Naccache, M.F., Varges, P.R., Marchesini, F.H., 2007, “Flow of viscoplastic liquids through axisymmetric expansions-contractions”, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech., Vol. 142, pp. 207-217.

[4] Behr, M., Franca, L.P., Tezduyar, T.E., 1993. ”Stabilized Finite Element Methods for the Velocity-Pressure-stress Formulation of Incompressible Flows”, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., vol. 104, pp. 31–48.

[5] Renato da R. Martins, Giovanni M. Furtado, Daniel D. dos Santos, Sérgio Frey, Mônica F. Nacacche, Paulo R. de Souza Mendes, Elastic and viscous effects on flow pattern of elasto-viscoplastic fluids in a cavity, Mechanics Research Communications. 53 (2013) 36-42.

[6] D. Sikorski, H. Tabuteau, J. R. de Bruyn, Motion and shape of bubbles 452 rising through a yield-stress fluid, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 159, (2009) 10–16.

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Design and Analysis of 3D Bridge Truss Using Steel and Concrete Materials.

Authors: Ghassan Shaker Abd, Ahmed Shany Khusheef, Ahmed Mohmad Aliywy, Saddam Hassan Raheemah

Abstract— Today truss structures that are simple to assemble and more economical are used for many purposes such as crossing area, rail road and other transportation bridges. These structures are composed of members that are connected to form a rigid frame of steel and arranged in a triangular manner resulting in the loads carried to become either in tension or compression. In this paper, a 3D bridge truss were designed and analysed in (ANSYS Workbench) with the real time boundary conditions by using steel for the whole structure to determine the static analysis like: axial force, stress , shear stress and deformation. The floor's material of the Bridge was changed from steel to concrete in order to find which combination of materials will give better performances. The results show that using concrete floor can reduces axial force and stress up to 0.64515N and 0.0001233Mpa, respectively while using steel material will reduce bridge's shear stress and deformation up to 7.9015e-21Mpa and 3.4888e-8mm, respectively.

Keywords— Floor, chord, Bridge, Steel, Concrete, ANSYS workbench


[1] Desalegn M.,"Design of Simple to Assemble Steel Truss Bridge for Pedestrian Crossing in Addis Ababa," Addis Ababa University, Master Thesis, 2015.

[2] SkyCiv, (last visited in August, 2018). "Types of Truss Structures," Available: https://skyciv.com/education/types-of-trusses/

[3] Aliywy A. M., Khusheef A. S. And G.S. Abd, "Design and Analysis of Three-Link Arm Robot by Using Steel,En-9, and Al-7075," Kut University college, Research & Studies & publishing center, 2017.

[4] Khusheef A. S., " Investigation on the mobile robot navigation in an unknown environment," Edith Cowan University, Master's thesis, Australia, 2013.

[5] Madenci E. and Guven I.,“The Finite Element Method and Applications in Engineering Using Ansys,” The University of Arizona, Springer Science +Business Media, LLC, 2006.

[6] Khusheef A. S., G. Kothapalli, and M. Tolouei-Rad, "Simulation of a mobile robot navigation system," presented at the 19th International Congress on Modeling and Simulation, pages 318-323, Perth, Australia, December 2011.

[7] Sohaib M., “Parameterized Automated Generic Model for Aircraft Wing Structural Design and Mesh Generation for Finite Element Analysis,”Linköping Studies in Science and Technology, 2011.

[8] Khusheef A. S., G. Kothapalli, and M. Tolouei-Rad, “An approach for integration of industrial robot with vision system and simulation software,” Journal of the World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology, 58 (2011) pp. 18-23.

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