Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014 (Title of Paper )

Page No.

Study of the Morphological & Mechanical Behavior of Injected Polypropylene Composites Reinforced with Short Glass Fibers

Author: A. Haddout, M. Benhadou, F. Rhrich, B. Benhadou, G. Villoutreix

Abstract— We present in this paper an experimental study of the mechanical and morphological behavior of injected thermoplastic composites. We have shown the influence of the injection temperature and the mold temperature and the injection speed and the geometry of the mold cavity on the one hand on the fibers orientation and on the other hand on the tensile behavior and impact strength of polypropylene composites reinforced with 20 to 30% of short glass fibers. Particular attention has been paid to the contribution of the fiber / matrix interface in improving the mechanical performance of the material.

Keywords— Injection molding- Fibers orientaionMechanical characterisation - Morphological characterisation Short glass fibers- Reinforced Polypropylene - Thermoplastics composites


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[7] M. Bouarourou; L. Safrioui; A. Haddout; M. Benhadou; M. Mazouzi; G. Villoutreix; Etude du comportement en relaxation de composites injectes en polypropylène/fibres de verre courtes ; AMCA 2008

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[10] A. Haddout(1); M. Benhadou(1); F. Rhrich; L. Safraoui; G. Villoutreix(2) Experimental study of fibers orientation and distribution during the injection molding of thermoplastic composites; Journal of composite materials; submitted mauscript ID: JCM-14-0320

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[18] Ahmed N. Oumer and Othman Mamat. Asian Journal of Scientific Research. 2013, Volume: 6, Issue: 3, Page No.: 401-410. DOI: 10.3923/ajsr.2013.401.410

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Improvement of Voltage output for Distribution System under Transient Condition with Dynamic Voltage Restorer

Authors: Brijesh Parmar, Shivani Johri, Manish Agrawal, Chetan Chodavadiya

Abstract— Voltage sags and swells in the medium and low voltage distribution grid are considered to be the most frequent type of power quality problems based on recent power quality studies. Their impact on sensitive loads is severe. In this paper, the performance of voltage-source converter-based series compensators used for load voltage control in electrical power distribution network has been analyzed and compared, when a nonlinear load is connected across the load bus. Possible control schemes and their effects on the oscillation attenuation are also studied. Such studied control schemes include the commonly used single voltage loop control, voltage feedback plus reference feed forward control, and double-loop control with an outer voltage loop and an inner current loop. This research paper described DVR principles and voltage restoration methods for balanced and/or unbalanced voltage sags and swells in a distribution system. Simulation results were presented to illustrate and understand the performances of DVR under voltage sags/swells conditions. The MATLAB simulation verification of the results derived has been obtained using a model of the three-phase DVR.

Keywords— Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System, (FACTS), load voltage control, nonlinear load.


[1] Mienski, R., R. Pawelek and I. Wasiak (2004), ―Shunt Compensation for Power Quality Improvement Using a STATCOM controller, Modelling and Simulation‖, IEEE. Proc. Gener. Trans. Distib., 151: 2.

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[4] Ravi Kumar 1 and S. Siva Nagaraju 1 , (JUNE 2007), ―SIMULATION OF D-STATCOM AND DVR IN POWER SYSTEMS‖ by S.V VOL. 2, NO. 3 ISSN 1819-6608 ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences ©2006-2007, Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

[5] C. Benachaiba and B. Ferdi Bechar University (2009), ―Power Quality Improvement Using DVR‖, Center BP, 417 Bechar 08000, Algeria, American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (3): 396-400, ISSN 1546-9239, Science Publications.

[6] J. G. Nielsen and F. Blaabjerg, ―A detailed comparison of system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 5,pp. 1272–1280, Sep./Oct. 2005.

[7] P. Mattavelli, ―Closed-loop selective harmonic compensation for active filters,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 81–89, Jan./Feb. 2001.


Study of Flexural Strength in Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Patil Shweta, Rupali Kavilkar

Abstract— Concrete possesses a very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. Various types of fibre reinforced concrete are being used against plain concrete due to their higher flexural strength, better tensile strength, modulus of rupture and crack resistance. In the present investigation properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete like flexure and compressive strength are studied. Tests were conducted to study the flexural and compressive strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete with varying aspect and varying percentage of fibre. In the experiments conducted four aspect ratio were selected i.e. 40,50,60,70 and percentage of steel in each case varied from 0.5% to 2.5% at interval of 0.5%. The various strength parameters studied are compressive strength and flexural strength as per the relevant IS standards. The experimental results indicate that the addition of steel fibre into concrete significantly increases the flexural strength. It also indicates that at constant percentage of fibre, that is 1.5% by increasing the aspect ratio of fibre from 40 to 70, flexural strength increased from 36.7% to 58.65%. The research paper proposes that due to these properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete, it can be used for the design of curvilinear forms.

Keywords— Experimental investigation, Fibre reinforced concrete, flexural strength, compressive strength, aspect ratio, steel fibres.


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Implentation of Hand Gesture Recognition Technique for HCI Using Open CV

Authors: Nayana P B, Sanjeev Kubakaddi

Abstract— The computer industry is getting advanced. In a short span of years the industry is growing high with advanced techniques. This paper introduces a technique for human computer interaction using open source like python and openCV. The proposed algorithm consists of pre processing, segmentation and feature extraction. Here we calculate features like moments of the image, centroid of the image and Euclidean distance. The hand gesture images are taken by a camera. That is used as the input to the algorithm. The proposed algorithm is able to recognize the number of fingers present in the hand gesture.

Keywords— Computer vision, openCV, python, hand gesture, human computer interaction(HCI), Euclidean distance, contour, convex hull, convexity defects


[1] Meenakshi Panwar and Pawan Singh Mehra , ―Hand Gesture Recognition for Human Computer Interaction‖, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Information Processing(ICIIP 2011), Waknaghat, India, November 2011.

[2] Meenakshi Panwar, ―Hand Gesture Recognition based on Shape Parameters‖.

[3] Meenakshi Panwar, ―Hand Gesture based Interface for Aiding Visually Impaired‖.

[4] Zhong Yang, Yi Li, Weidong Chen, Yang Zheng, ―Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using Hidden Markov Models‖, in Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE 2012) July 14-17, 2012. Melbourne, Australia

[5] Amiraj Dhawan, Vipul Honrao‖implementation of hand detection based techniques for human computer interaction‖, in International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)

[6] Amornched Jinda-apiraksa, Warong Pongstiensak, and Toshiaki Kondo, ‖A Simple Shape Based Approach to Hand Gesture Recognition‖, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics Computer Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), Pathumthani, Thailand , pages 851-855, May 2010

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Generalized Model for Interactive Multimedia Tools Development, Used for Software Interface Implementation

Author: Maya Stoeva

Abstract — The power of applying models for application development and their interfaces, regardless of the technology used, is proven over time. With them are achieved: better structured system; saves time and money from the wrong directions for development of software; A better coordination between the different units in the case of larger projects. Multimedia interactive tools are part of software development, which not only became fashionable, but its importance continues to grow. Despite their greater use in practice, they are not available enough models yet to be used in their implementation. Famous ones have specific pros and cons of different types of projects that apply. This fact has provoked the author to do research in this area and to create a non-linear generalized model, combining the advantages and disadvantages of the known models. Thus, need to be adapted for various types of interactive applications. The purpose of this article is to describe the author created "generalized model". Other aim is to show where it is used to now, and where can be find applicability. In the considered model are defined and described specific processes that need to be taken under attention when developing a multimedia application.

Keywords — Generalized model, interactive tool, multimedia application, software interface, prototype, prototyping, wireframing, specific multimedia controls, usability


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[10] Stoeva М., Krushkova М., "Modeling and implementation of interactive web-based system for education in game method", International conference "From DeLC to VelSpace" at Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski", dedicated to 10-years from the beginning of "Distributed eLearning Center (DeLC)" project, 26-28 March'2014, Plovdiv town, Bulgaria

[11] Kiskinov H., Radev V., Stoeva M., ―A Graphic Constructor For Logic Circuits Design‖, International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2347 - 6435 (Online) Volume No. 2, Issue No. 4, 24-29 page, April 2014


Removal of Cu+2 from Electroplating Industrial Wastewater by using Microwave Assisted Activated Carbon

Authors: Monal Dutta, Jayanta Kumar Basu

Abstract— Rapid growth of industrialization infixes toxic materials engendering significant environmental problems. Removal of various heavy metals is efficiently carried out by using commercial activated carbon but its high cost restricts its widespread use upto certain extent. Therefore, use of waste agricultural material based activated carbon has drawn considerable attention of many researchers. In the present investigation, copper is removed from electroplating industry waste water by using Acacia scrap wood based activated carbon. The carbon was prepared through carbonization technique followed by microwave activation and characterized by using BET surface area analyzer, Scanning Electron Microscopy, CHN analyzer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The activated carbon is found to have a high surface area and total pore volume of 695 m2 /g and 0.5 cc/g respectively. It was found that 99.9 % of Cu(II) removal efficiency and 98.63% of COD removal efficiency was achieved within first 80 min of the batch adsorption study with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L, adsorbent concentration of 1 g/L, pH of 6, temperature of 30 °C, particle size of 105 µm and agitation speed of 200 rpm. The kinetics of the adsorption follows the pseudo second order rate kinetics.

Keywords— Activated carbon; Effluent; Adsorption; Waste water.


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Robust Face Label Graph Matching for Movie Character Identification

Authors: Arushi Mittal, Rajni SehgalAbstract-- Being a successful application in the field of image analysis, face recognition is seeking most of the attention during the past few years. It is a difficult problem because of the huge variation in the appearance of each character and the weakness and ambiguity of available annotation. Robust Face Name Graph Matching for Movie Character Identification is used to detect the faces of the movie characters and the system designed is taking the least time to detect the face. Through the proposed system, we will be able to do it in a one minute process.

Keywords-- Automatic Face Detection, Face Recognition, Principal Component Analysis.


[1] Y. Zhang, C. Xu, H. Lu, and Y. Huang, “Character identification in feature-length films using global face-name matching,” IEEE Trans.Multimedia, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1276–1288, November 2009.

[2] J. Yang and A. Hauptmann, “Multiple instance learning for labeling faces in broadcasting news video,” in ACM Int. Conf. Multimedia, 2005, pp. 31–40.

[3] CsabaCzirjek m. eng. in electronic engineering at dublin city university main character detection in news and movie content Copyright by CsabaCzirjek, 2005.

[4] VinayBettadapura College of Computing, Georgia Instituteof Technology [email protected] Face ExpressionRecognition and Analysis: The State of the Art

[5] OgnjenArandjelovi´c Engineering Department [email protected] and Andrew Zisserman University ofOxford, UK, [email protected]“Automatic FaceRecognition for Film Character Retrieval in Feature-LengthFilms”.

[6] Yi-Fan Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, ChangshengXu,Senior Member, IEEE, Hanqing Lu, Senior Member, IEEE,and Yeh-Min Huang, Member, IEEE-“ CharacterIdentification in Feature-Length Films Using Global Face-Name Matching”- IEEE TRANSACTIONS ONMULTIMEDIA, VOL. 11, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 2009



A Review Study on Minimum Quantity Lubrication in Machining

Authors: Anurag goyal, Jasvir S. Tiwana, Amrit Pal

Abstract- Machining is the wide spread metal shaping process, it exhibits rapid wear rate of cutting tools due to high cutting temperature generated during the process. Thus effective control of the heat generated during machining is essential to ensure good workpiece quality. Cutting fluids are applied to avoid the problem; however cutting fluids are restricted due to their harmful health and environmental impacts. Newly developed economical and environmental friendly alternative to completely dry or flood lubrication is minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL). Minimum Quantity of Lubrication machining refers to the use of a small amount of cutting fluid, typically in order of 500 ml/hr or less, which are about three to four orders of magnitudes lower than that used in flooded lubricating conditions, MQL technique consists in atomizing a very small quantity of lubricant in an airflow directed towards the cutting zone. This papers deals with the study of minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL) and its advantages over dry or flooded condition.

Keywords-- Minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL), tool wear and surface roughness.


[1 ] A. Shokrani, V. Dhokia, S.T. Newman, Environmentally conscious machining of difficult-to-machine materials with regard to cutting fluids, Int J Mach Tool Manu, 57 (2012) 83–101.

[2 ] A. Mishra and T. Prasad, Residual stresses due to a moving heat source, INT J Mech Sci, 27 (1985) 571-581.

[3 ] V.G. Navas , O. Gonzalo, I. Bengoetxea, Effect of cutting parameters in the surface residual stresses generated by turning in AISI 4340 steel, Int J Mach Tool Manu, 61 (2012) 48–57.

[4 ] S. Rao, Dr. B.Satyanarayana and Dr. K.Venkatasubbaiah, Online Tool Wear Prediction models in minimum quantity lubrication, Global journal of research in engineering automotive engineering, Vol.11 (5), 2011.

[5 ] O. Cakīr, A. Yardimeden, T. Ozben and E. Kilickap, Selection of cutting fluids in machining processes, Journal of achievements in materials and manufacturing engineering, Vol.25, 2007.

[6 ] Y.S. Liao and H.M. Lin, Mechanism of minimum quantity lubrication in high-speed milling of hardened steel, Int J Mach Tool Manu, 47 (2007) 1660–1666.

[7 ] D.G. Thakur, B. Ramamoorthy, and L. Vijayaraghavan, Optimization of minimum quantity lubrication parameters in high speed turning of superalloy Inconel 718 for sustainable devolpment, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 54 2009.

[8 ] D.U. Braga, A.E. Diniz, G.W.A. Miranda and N.L. Coppini, Using a minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL) and a diamond coated tool in the drilling of aluminum–silicon alloys, J Mater Process Tech, 122 (2002) 127–138.

[9 ] N.R. Dhar, M. Kamruzzaman and M. Ahmed, Effect of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) on tool wear and surface roughness in turning AISI-4340 steel, J Mater Process Tech, 172 (2006) 299–304.

[10 ] C. Bruni, A. Forcellese, F. Gabrielli and M. Simoncini, Effect of the lubrication-cooling technique, insert technology and machine bed material on the workpart surface finish and tool wear in finish turning of AISI 420B, Int J Mach Tool Manu, 46 (2006) 1547–1554.

[11 ] L.B Abhang and M. Hameedullah, Experimental investigation of minimum quantity lubricantsin alloy steel turning, Int J Eng Sci Tech, Vol. 2(7), 2010.

[12 ] Y.S. Liao, H.M. Lin and Y.C. Chen, Feasibility study of the minimum quantity lubrication in high-speed end milling of NAK80 hardened steel by coated carbide tool, Int J Mach Tool Manu, 47 (2007) 1667–1676.

[13 ] Jung Soo Nam, Pil-Ho Lee and Sang Won Lee, Experimental characterization of micro-drilling process using nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication, Int J Mach Tool Manu, 51 (2011) 649–652.

[14 ] A. Meena and M. El Mansori, Study of dry and minimum quantity lubrication drilling of novel austempered ductile iron (ADI) for automotive applications, Wear, 271 (2011) 2412– 2416.

[15 ] Kuan-Ming Li and Shih-Yen Chou, Experimental evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication in near micro-milling, J Mater Process Tech, 210 (2010) 2163–2170.

[16 ] S. Zhang, J.F. Li and Y.W. Wang, Tool life and cutting forces in end milling Inconel 718 under dry and minimum quantity cooling lubrication cutting conditions, J Clean Prod, 32 (2012) 81-87.

[17 ] L.R. da Silva, E.C. Bianchi, R.Y. Fusse, R.E. Catai, T.V. Franc, and P. R. Aguiar, Analysis of surface integrity for minimum quantity lubricant—MQL in grinding, Int J Mach Tool Manu, 47 (2007) 412– 418.


Solving Transportation Problems Using Value-Ambiguity Interval Approximations of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: D. Stephen Dinagar, K. Jivagan

Abstract- A new algorithm for finding fuzzy optimal solution of ‘Approximations of fuzzy number transportation problem’ with the aid of Value-Ambiguity interval approximation (VAIA) of fuzzy number is proposed. The transportation cost, Supply and Demand are represented by VAIA of fuzzy numbers. A Numerical illustration is included for verify the above said notion.

Keywords-Fuzzy numbers, approximations of fuzzy numbers, value-ambiguity interval approximations of fuzzy number, fuzzy transportation problem, fuzzy optimal solution.

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An Advance Approach to Control DC Motor Speed Using PID Control in MATLAB Simulink

Authors: Jayashree Deka, Shinde Krishna Arvind, Tarate Akshay Arun, Taur Sandip Madhukar



Modeling and Simulation of Fixed and Variable Speed of DFIG Wind System

Authors: Rakesh Sharma, Kuldeep Sahay, Satyendra Singh

Abstract— The wind power is a pollution free source of energy. In this paper we have focused on analyzing the performance of wind power in conventional system under various scenarios. Here we have introduced a wind power in a power generation and transmission system alongside the conventional 3-phase sources and have simulated its working and performance. The wind power is made to work in tandem with the regular supply. In case of faults occurring in the system wind power is used to act as backup for the original supply. Also in case of extra power demand in peak time periods, it has been used to complement the power sources there by maintaining the power quality and frequency in the system. To analysis the performance of DFIG wind system during three phase fault there is two cases (i) Performance analysis of DFIG during fault at fixed wind speed (ii) Performance analysis of DFIG during fault at variable wind speed. All these scenarios have been simulated with the help of the simulation program using MATLAB and its inbuilt components provided in SIMULINK library.

Keywords—Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Rotor Side Converter (RSC), Stator Side Converter (SSC), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Wound Rotor Induction Generator (WRIG), Voltage Source Converter (VSC).


[1] Pehosh M., Putnam R., ―Interconnection Of Large Wind Turbines To Electric Cooperative Distribution Grids‖, Rural Electric Power Conference (REPC), IEEE 2010.

[2] R. Datta and V. T. Ranganathan, ―Variable-Speed Wind Power Generation Using Doubly Fed Wound Rotor Induction – A Comparison with Alternative Schemes,‖ IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 414-421, Sept. 2002.

[3] R.Pena, J.C. Clare and G.M.Asher, ―Doubly Fed Induction Generator Using Back To Back PWM Converters And Its Application To Variable Speed Wind Energy Generation‖ ,IEE Proc.-Electr.Power Appl. Vol. 143 ,no.3, pp. 231-241,May 1996.

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Power Quality Improvement Using A DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer)

Authors: Risha Dastagir, Mariam Asif

Abstract—Power quality is one of major problems in the today’s scenario. It has become important with the introduction of complex devices, whose performance is very sensitive to the quality of power supply. Power quality problem is an occurrence developed as a nonstandard voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure of end use equipments. Some of the major problems dealt here is the power sag and swell. This paper describes the effectiveness of using dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) in order to mitigate voltage sags and swells in low voltage distribution systems. Dynamic Voltage Restorer can provide the most cost effective solution to mitigate voltage sags and swells that is required by customer. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a rapid, flexible and resourceful solution to power quality problems.

Keywords— DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer), Harmonic Elimination, Power Quality, Voltage Sag, Voltage Swell.


[1] Anita Pakharia, Manoj Gupta ―Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Compensation of Voltaage Sag and Swell: A Literature Review‖, International Journal of Advance in Engineering & Technology, vol 4, issue 1, july 2012, pp.347-355.

[2] Himadri Ghosh, Pradip kumar Saha, ― Design and Simulation of a Novel Self Supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for Power Quality Improvement.‖ International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 3, issue 6, june2012, pp 1-6.

[3] Mahmoud A. El-Gammal, Amr Y. Abou-Ghazala,―Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Sag Mitigation‖ International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics- volume-3, number 1, march 2011, pp 1-11.

[4] Rosli Omar, Nasrudin Abd Rahim, ― Mitigation of Voltage Sags/Swells Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)‖ ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 4, no. 4, june 2009, pp.50-56.

[5] M.N. Tandjaouli, C. Benachabia, ― Sensitive Loads Voltage Improvement Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer‖ 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Bandung, Indonesia, 17-19 July 2011.

[6] Ajay K. Damor, Prof. V. B. Babaria, ― Voltage Sag Control Using DVR‖, National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology‖ B. V. M. Engineering College, Gujrat, India, 13-14 may 2011.

[7] M. Arun Bhaskar, Dr. S.S. Dash ―Voltage Quality Improvement Using DVR‖ 2010 International Conference on Resent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and computing. 2010,978-0-7695- 3975-1/10 $25.00 © 2010 IEEE, pp. 378-380.

[8] Saripalli Rajesh, Mahesh K. Mishra, ―Design and Simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) Using Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM)‖ 16th National power systems conference, Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P. India, 15-17 december 2010, pp. 317-322.

[9] Ali O Al-Mathnani, Hussain Shareef ―Power Quality Improvement using DVR with Two Fast Vector Control‖ The 4th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conf., Selangor, MALAYSIA ,23-24 june 2010, pp. 376-381.

[10] Yash Pal, A. Swarup, Bhim Singh, “A Review of Compensating Type Custom Power Devices for Power Quality Improvement”, 2008 IEEE 978-1-4244-1762-9/08.

[11] Roger C. Dugan, Mark F. McGranaghan, Surya Santoso, H. Wayne Beaty, ― Electrical Power Systems Quality‖ Tata McGraw Hills publications, 3rd Edition 2012.



Detecting Heart Rates of Expectant Mothers in their 3rd Trimester

Authors: Niyan Marchon, Dr Gourish Naik

Abstract— The on-going research work involved in filtering abdominal electrocardiogram (aECG) and detecting maternal QRS complexes to calculate maternal heart rates will give this research a lead to further detect fetal heart rates. The monitoring of maternal and fetal heart rates help detect fetal hypoxia early in the evolution to acidosis. The maternal ECG is strongly distorted by artifacts like baseline wander and power line interference. This paper briefly recaps the implementation of some methods to remove these noise so as to calculate the maternal heart rate (R-R interval). Kaiser FIR High pass filter has been proved to be an efficient method for the removal of baseline wander from the aECG signal [7]. A Notch filter with a bandwidth of 2Hz was designed in Matlab using FDA tool to remove the 50 Hz power line interference[7]. In the proposed algorithm a RR interval is calculated, based on threshold detection of the R peaks which in turns calculates the maternal heart rates. The method is validated using 19 recorded signals taken from the Physionet non-invasive aECG database.

Keywords— asphyxia, Abdominal Electrocardiogram (aECG), baseline wander, power-line interference, Physionet, threshold detection.


[1] Schneider U., Fiedler A., Liehr M., Kähler C., and Schleussner E., Fetal heart rate variability in growth restricted fetuses. Biomedizinische Technik (Biomedical engineering), 51(4): 248-50, 2006.

[2] Pincus S. M., Viscarello R. R., Approximate entropy: a regularitymeasure for fetal heart rate analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 79(2):249-255, 1992.

[3] Di Renzo G. C., Montani M., Fioriti V., Clerici G., Barnconi F., Pardini A., Indraccolo R., and Cosmi E.V., Fractal Analysis: a new method for evaluating fetal heart rate variability. Journal of perinatal medicine, 24(3): 261-269, 1996.

[4] Maulik D., Saini V., Zigrossi S. T., Clinical significance of short term variability computed from heart rate waveforms. Journal of perinatal medicine, 11: 243-248, 1983

[5] Leeuwen P. V., Lange S., Geue D., and Grönemeyer D., Heart ratevariability in the fetus: a comparison of measures. Biosignal Processing (Special Issue-Part 3), 52(1): 61-65, 2007.

[6] Physionet website : www.Physionet.org

[7] Niyan Marchon , Dr Gourish Naik, “Denoising of Abdominal Maternal ECG signals” International Journal of Engineering Research & Industrial Applications (IJERIA) , vol.7,No.I, February 2014.

[8] B. U. K'ohler, C. Henning and R. Orgelmeister, "The principles of software QRS detection," IEEE Eng. Med. Bioi. Mag., vol. 21, pp. 42- 57, Jan/Feb 2002.


A Review on: Multi-Scales Analysis of Water Resources Carrying Capacity based on Ecological Footprints

Authors: Shobharam Ahirwar, Dr. J. P. Shukla

Abstract— Sustainable groundwater development has absolutely fundamental importance for universal access for safe drinking water and is yet poorly understood. The problem of water resource caused by the imbalance between supply and demand. Water resources carrying capacity is a basic measurement of water resource security that plays an important role in recognizing and basically water resource security system. Water footprint focuses on the consumption and trade of the water resource and has been seldom in assessing the latter sustainability due to the water supply. In addition both the ecological and water footprint has static status in accessing the result and explanting the present and past status of water resource. Therefore, making the use of ecological and water footprint appropriately for resource management & maintain the balance between the available water resource and consumption.

Keywords— Carrying capacity, Ecological footprint, Water resource, Water demand and supply.


[1] Allan, J. A. 1994.Overall perspectives on countries and regions. In: P. Rogers and P. Lydon, Editors, Water in the Arab World: Perspectives and prognoses, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1994), pp. 65–100.

[2] Alaguraja, P., Yuvaraj, D., Sekar, M., Muthuveerran, P., Manivel, M. 2010. Remote Sensing and GIS Approach for the Water Pollution and Management In Tiruchirappli Taluk, Tamil Nadu, India, International Journal Of Environmental Sciences Volume 1, No1.

[3] Buckenl, K. B., Ball, R. J., Cullen, R., Bigsby, H. R., 1998. New methodology for the ecological footprint with an application to the New Zealand economy. Ecological Ecomomics 27,149-160

.[4] Chagapain, A. ,K., Hokestra, A.Y., Savenije, H.H.G., Gautam, R. 2006. The Water Footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries. Science Direct,

[5] Ecological Economics 60 (2006) 186. http://www.waterfootprint.org/Reports/Chapagain_et_al_2006_ cotton.pdf

[6] Cambodia‘s Leading Independent Development Policy Research Institute (CDRI) Publication, 2008. Framing Research on Water Resources Management and Governance in Cambodia, (A literature review, Working Paper 37), page 2. http://www.cdri.org.kh/webdata/download/wp/wp37e.pdf

[7] Chapagain, A. K., Hoekstra, A. Y. 2003. Virtual water flows between nations in relation to trade in livestock and livestock products. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 13, UNESCO-IHE.

[8] Chapagain, A.K., Orr, S. 2009. An improved water footprint methodology linking global consumption to local water resources: A case of Spanish tomatoes. Journal of Environmental Management 90, 1219-1228.

[9] Cerutti, A. K., Bagliani, M., Beccaro, G. L., Bounous, G. 2010. Application of Ecological Footprint Analysis on nectarine production: methodological issues and results from a case study in Italy. Journal of Cleaner Production 18,771-776.

[10] Cerutti, A. K., Bagliani, M., Beccaro, G. L., Balsari, P., Bounous, G. 2011. Evaluation of the sustainability of swine manure Fertilization in orchard through Ecological Footprint Analysis: results from a case study in Italy. Journal of Cleaner Production 19, 318-324.

[11] Ehrlich, P.R., John P., Holdren. 1971. Impact of Population Growth Science, New Series, Vol. 171, No. 3977. (Mar. 26, 1971), pp. 1212-1217. http://faculty.washington.edu/stevehar/Ehrlich.pdf

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[13] Fu. Xiang; Ji. Changming 1999. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the regional water resource carrying capacity-application of main component analysis method, Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin 1999-02. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTALCJLY199902011.htm

[14] Feng, L.H., Zhang, X.C., Luo, G.Y. 2008. Application of system dynamic in analyzing the carrying capacity of water resources in Yiwu City, China. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 79, 269-278. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1461224

[15] Furey, S.G., Danert, K. 2012. Rural Water Supply Network (Sustainable Groundwater Development: use, protect and enhance) Publication No 2012-1


Security in Wireless Sensor Network using Stationary Access Nodes

Authors: Sharath N, Laxmi B Rananavare

Abstract - Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) are easy to deploy and allow flexible installations which have enabled them to be used for numerous applications. Due to these properties, they face distinct information security threats. Security for WSNs is very much needed, because of its sensitive information transmission. Sensor networks are vulnerable to many types of attacks because they are deployed in public environment. So it is necessary to secure sensor networks, this can be achieved by introducing authentication and pairwise key establishment mechanisms to sensor nodes. In the proposed system some nodes in WSN are selected as stationary access nodes (SANs) to provide authentication access point between mobile sinks and static sensor nodes. The key distribution mechanism uses two types of key pools: the mobile key pool and the static key pool, the keys in the mobile key pool are shared between mobile sinks and SANs the keys in the static key pool are shared between SANs and Static sensor nodes.

Keywords - Mobile sinks, Stationary access node, Pairwise key distribution, Pre-distribution, Replication attack.

[1] M. Yasir Malik “An Outline of Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Threats, Countermeasures and Implementations” Institute of New Media and Communication Seoul National University, Korea

[2] Du, Wenliang Kevin; Deng, Jing; Han, Yunghsiang S.; and Varshney, Pramod K., "A Pairwise Key Pre Distribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks" (2000). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Paper 36.

[3] Blom, R. 1985. “An optimal class of symmetric key generation systems”. Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of EUROCRYPT 84 (Thomas Beth, Norbert Cot, and Ingemar Ingemarsson, eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag 209, 335– 338.

[4] Chan, H., Perrig, A., And Song, D. 2003. “Random key predistribution schemes for sensor networks”. In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. Berkeley, California, 197– 213.

[5] Seyit A. Camtepe snd Bulent Yener “Key Distribution Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks: a Survey” Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

[6] Blundo, C., Santis, A., Herzberg, A., Kutten, S., Vaccaro, U., and Yung, M. 1992. “Perfectly-secure key distribution for dynamic conferences” In Crypto 92.

[7] Burmester, M. and Desmedt, Y. 1994. “A secure and efficient conference key distribution system” In Eurocrypt 94.

[8] Eschenauer, L. and Gligor, V. D. 2002. “A key-management scheme for distributed sensor networks” In 9th ACM conference on Computer and Communications Security.

[9] D. Liu, P. Ning, and R.Li. Establishing, “Pairwise Keys in Distributed Sensor Networks,” Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Computers and Comm. Security (CCS ‟03), pp. 52-61, Oct. 2003.

[10] 20 53 L. Lamport, “Password Authentication with Insecure Communicatio,” Comm. ACM, vol, 24, no. 11, pp. 770-772, Nov. 1981.

[11] Perrig, A., Canetti, R., Tygar, J., and Song, D. X. 2000. “Efficient authentication and signing of multicast streams over lossy channels” In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.

[12] A Rasheed and R N Mahapatra, “A The Three-Tier Security Scheme In Wireless Sensor Networks With Mobile Sinks” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23,NO. 5, May 2012



Implementation of Apriori Algorithm on Traffic Data

Authors: Kavita, Trilok Gabba

Abstract — with the advent of new emerging technologies it has been observed that there is a high increase in attacks .The latest technology which is being widely used is wireless sensor network. WSN is one of the most widely used technologies. WSN is of two types 1) Infrastructure based 2) Infrastructure less network. It offers a great deal of promise by providing features like cost effectiveness, flexibility, scalability etc. As this network is wireless they dynamically change their topology and do not have any central point of contact which allows the nodes to join and leave the network at any given time which leaves the network vulnerable and gives the attacker an opportunity to Spoof the nodes, gain sensitive information and use the same against the network. Through this paper we have tried to target attacks like Wormhole, Spoofing while safeguarding the security. This paper even focuses on traffic related problem and suggests a solution for the same Keywords — Spoofing, WSN, Attacks, Wormhole, VPN, Traffic Analysis, DOS


[1 ] An Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks Bhaskar Krishnamachari [2 ] Wireless sensor network survey By Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal [3 ] MANET(Mobile ad hoc network)- Characterics and Features [4 ] Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Networks By Yih-Chun Hu, , Adrian Perrig, and David B. Johnson [5 ] Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks:Analysis and Countermeasure ByMajid Khabbazian, Hugues Mercier and Vijay K. Bhargava [6 ] The Wormhole Routing Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) By Lukman Sharif* and Munir Ahmed [7 ] Alzaid, Hani and Abanmi, Suhail and Kanhere, Salil and Chou, Chun Tung (2006) Detecting Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks. Technical Report, Computer Science and Engineering School - UNSW, The Network Research Laboratory - UNSW [8 ] A graph theoretic framework for preventing the wormhole attack in wireless ad hoc networks Radha Poovendran, Loukas Lazos [9 ] Network Security Using Cryptographic Techniques Sumedha Kaushik and Ankur Singhal [10 ] International journal of innovative research in computer and communication engineering. [11 ] Bayrem Triki, Slim Rekhis and Noureddine Boudriga, ―Digital Investigation of Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks‖, IEEE 2010, pp 179-186. [12 ] Thanassis Giannetsos, Tassos Dimitriou and Neeli R. Prasad, ―State of the Art on Defenses against Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks‖, IEEE 2009, pp 313-318. [13 ] Mahdi Nouri, Somayeh Abazari Aghdam and Sajjad Abazari Aghdam, ―Collaborative Techniques for Detecting Wormhole Attack in WSNs‖, IEEE 2011, pp 1-6. [14 ] An Overview on Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Network: Challenges, Impacts, and Detection Approach Saurabh Ughade, R.K. Kapoor and Ankur Pandey [15 ] Adhoc networks :filter based addressing protocol, Tanaya Mehendale,Y.D.Chincholkar [16 ] A novel deterministic key pre distribution schemes for wireless sensor networks, Mahesh , Sachin, Snehal, Rajkumar and Suryakant [17 ] Comparative review study of security of ARAN and AODV routing protocols in manets, Er Ruby Goel and Er M eenakshi Mittal.


Single-Feed Circularly Polarized S-Shaped Patch Antenna

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Hamid Ali, Manoj Sengar

Abstract— In this Paper Presents the result for different standard thickness values, and the result is performed by circularly polarized, S-shaped slotted patch antenna with a small frequency-ratio is proposed for GPS applications. The antenna has become a necessity for many applications in recent wireless communications, such as Radar, Microwave and space communication. The proposed antenna design on different shapes and analyzed result in resonant frequency will be 1.4GHz. A single micro-strip feed-line is underneath the centre of the coupling aperture ground-plane. The frequency-ratio of the antenna can be controlled by adjusting the S-shaped slot arm lengths. The measured - 10dB return loss, bandwidths for the lower and upperbands are 14% (1.093–1.186 GHz) and 11.5% (1.332–1.427 GHz), respectively, length vary from 4.5mm to 25.5mm and width from 4.5mm to 49.0mm. At 12GHz frequency and the tested result on IE3D SIMULATOR parameters are for Xaxis -30.0mm to 30.0mm, Y-axis -22.25mm to 22.25 and Zaxis is still 21.524. After that results are verified and simulated, S-Parameter = -24.9db, Field Gain = 7.0dB, Directivity = 7.35dB, Efficiency for Antenna= 92.0%, All results shown are Simulated.

Keywords— Micro strip antenna; IE3D SIMULATOR; Circular polarization; circularly polarized antenna; slotted patch; slot.


[1] C.A. Balanis, “Antenna theory”, John Wiley, 1982, pp 727-734.

[2] David M. Pozar. Considerations for millimeter wave printed antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 31(5):740-747, 1983.

[3] David M. Pozar. Microstrip antenna aperture{coupled to a microstrip-line. Electronic Letters, EL{21(2):49{50, January 1985.

[4] S. D. Targonski and D. M. Pozar, “Design of wideband circularly polarized aperture-coupled microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 214–219, 1993.

[5] T. Tanaka, T. Houzen, M. Takahashi, and K. Ito, “Circularly polarized printed antenna combining slots and patch,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 3, pp. 62–628, 2007.

[6] C. H. Cai, J. S. Row, and K. L. Wong, “Dual-frequency microstrip antenna for dual circular polarization,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 22, pp. 1261–1262, Oct. 2006.

[7] Georg Splitt. MultiSTRIP v2.4 - User's Manual for the MultiSTRIP Program. Fachhochschule Kiel, 1995

[8] C.-M. Su and K.-L.Wong, “A dual-band GPS microstrip antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, May 2002.

[9] D. M. Pozar and S. M. Duffy, “A dual-band circularly polarized aperture-coupled stacked microstrip antenna for global positing satellite,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1618–1624, 1997

[10] IE3D Version 14.0, Zeland Software Inc.. Fremont, CA, Oct. 2007.

[11] Xian Hua Yang and Lotfollah Shafai. Characteristics of aperture coupled microstrip antennas with various radiating patches and coupling apertures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP{43(1):72-78, January 1995.

[12] Jean-Fran_cois Z• urcher. The SSFIP: A global concept for highperformance broadband planar antennas. Electronic Letters, EL24(23):1433-1435, November 1988.


Circularly Polarized Square Patch Antenna.

Authors: Manoj Sengar, Hamid Ali, Gaurav Kumar

Abstract— This paper presents the result for different standard thickness values, and the result is performed by circularly polarized, Square patch antenna with a small frequency-ratio is proposed for mobile applications. The antenna has become a necessity for many applications in recent wireless communications such as Radar, Microwave and space communication. The proposed antenna design on different shapes and analyzed result in resonant frequency will be 8.2GHz. A single micro-strip feed-line is underneath the centre of the coupling aperture ground-plane. The frequency-ratio of the antenna can be controlled by adjusting the slot arm lengths. At 12GHz frequency and the tested result on IE3D SIMULATOR parameters are for Xaxis -21.6mm to 21.6mm, Y-axis -21.6mm to 21.6 . After that results are verified and simulated, S-Parameter = - 25.34dB, Field Gain = 9.463dB, Directivity = 10.57dB, Efficiency for Antenna = 77.75% and VSWR = 0.97 . All results shown are Simulated.

Keywords— Micro strip antenna; IE3D SIMULATOR; Circular polarization; circularly polarized antenna; slotted patch; slot.


[1] C.A. Balanis, “Antenna theory”, John Wiley, 1982, pp 727-734.

[2] David M. Pozar. Considerations for millimeter wave printed antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 31(5):740-747, 1983.

[3] David M.Pozar. Microstrip antenna aperture{coupled to a microstrip-line. Electronic Letters, EL{21(2):49{50, January 1985.

[4] S. D. Targonski and D. M.Pozar, “Design of wideband circularly polarized aperture-coupled microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 214–219, 1993.

[5] T. Tanaka, T. Houzen, M. Takahashi, and K. Ito, “Circularly polarized printed antenna combining slots and patch,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 3, pp. 62–628, 2007.

[6] C. H. Cai, J. S. Row, and K. L. Wong, “Dual-frequency micro strip antenna for dual circular polarization,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 22, pp. 1261–1262, Oct. 2006.

[7] [Georg Splitt. MultiSTRIP v2.4 - User's Manual for the MultiSTRIP Program. Fachhochschule Kiel, 1995

[8] C.-M. Su and K.-L.Wong, “A dual-band GPS microstrip antenna,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, May 2002.

[9] D. M. Pozar and S. M. Duffy, “A dual-band circularly polarized aperture-coupled stacked microstrip antenna for global positing satellite,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1618–1624, 1997.

[10] IE3D Version 14.0, Zeland Software Inc.. Fremont, CA, Oct. 2007.

[11] Xian Hua Yang and Lotfollah Shafai. Characteristics of aperture coupled microstrip antennas with various radiating patches and coupling apertures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP{43(1):72-78, January 1995.

[12] Jean-Fran_cois Z• urcher. The SSFIP: A global concept for highperformance broadband planar antennas. Electronic Letters, EL24(23):1433-1435, November 1988.


Review of Association Rule in Data Mining Algorithm

Authors: Kavita, Trilok Gabba

Abstract— now data in organizations is increasing very speedily. A technique is required for handling this data. So there are many techniques available in market that organizes this data. Some operations are applied on data like classification, clustering and association rule. One of the most popular algorithms is Apriori that is used to extract frequent item sets from large database and getting the association rule for discovering the knowledge. This paper represents review of algorithms that are used for association rule mining.

Keywords— Data Mining, Association Rule, Apriori Algorithm, Item set generation, Railway traffic.


[1] R. C. Agarwal, C. C. Aggarwal, and V. V. V. Prasad. “A Tree Projection Algorithm for Generation of Frequent Itemsets”. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing (Special Issue on High Performance Data Mining), 61(3):350–371, 2001.

[2] R. C. Agarwal and J. C. Shafer. “Parallel Mining of Association Rules”. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 8(6):962–969, March 1998..

[3] C. C. Aggarwal and P. S. Yu. “Mining Large Itemsets for Association Rules”. Data Engineering Bulletin, 21(1):23–31, March 1998.

[4] C. C. Aggarwal and P. S. Yu. “Mining Associations with the Collective Strength Approach”. IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 13(6):863–873, January/February 2001..

[5] R. Bayardo and R. Agrawal. Mining the Most Interesting Rules. In Proc. of the 5th Intl. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pages 145–153, San Diego, CA, August 1999.

[6] E.-H. Han, G. Karypis, and V. Kumar. “Min-Apriori: An Algorithm for Finding Association Rules in Data with Continuous Attributes”. http://www.cs.umn.edu/˜han, 1997.

[7] G. Dong and J. Li. Efficient Mining of Emerging Patterns: Discovering Trends and Differences. In Proc. of the 5th Intl. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pages 43–52, San Diego, CA, August 1999