Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014 (Title of Paper )

Page No.

PV, Wind and Fuel Cell Hybrid Optimization Generation for AL-Arish Site

Author: Ahmed M. Attala, A. T. M. Taha, Ahmed.K.Ryad

Abstract—Thispaper, a site-matching technique to generate electricity by a hybrid system using renewable resources on the site, especially wind energy and solar energy is applied. The monthly averaged wind speed at 50 m. above the surface of the earth for 10 years and monthly averaged insolation incident on a horizontal surface for 22 years is collected [1]. A new matching technique is used to select the optimum wind turbine for AL-Arish wind energy capability, similarly the optimum PV panel is selected based on capacity factor technique to match the site. HOMER Software (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) [2] was employed like tool of sizing and optimization. This software contains a certain component count of energy and evaluates the suitable options while being based upon the cost and the availability of the energy resources. A combination of wind turbine and PV module along with fuel cell which is a completely renewable and un-pollutant source was introduced to the program to select the optimum combination.

Keywords—Site-Matching, Wind, TSI, PV, Capacity Factor, Fuel Cell, Optimization.


[1] NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy [Online]. Available at http://www.nasa.gov

[2] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL ) Available at www.nrel.gov/homer

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[9] Solar Electricity Handbook - 2013 Edition: A Simple Practical Guide to Solar Energy - Designing and Installing Photovoltaic Solar Electric Systems

[10] PragyaNema, R.K. Nema, SarojRangnekar ‘A current and future state of art development of hybrid energy system using wind and PV-solar: A review’ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13 (2009) 2096–2103.

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Simulation of AES Based Data Encryption in Vb.NET

Authors: Ibrahim M. Harram, Mala U. M. Bakura, Zainab M. Gwoma

Abstract- In the present computer era, the need to protect data in communications from spying eyes is greater than ever before. Since times immemorial, security of data to maintain its confidentiality, proper access control, integrity and availability has been a major issue in data communication. This paper focuses mainly on the realization of data encryption using the famous Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm in Vb.net framework. The study is based on the development of a computer oriented encryption program, using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) that will ensure the security of data on transit. The data encryption and decryption system described and realized in this work using AES codes is aimed at improving data security and integrity. It has been programmed, tested and proved satisfactory with all the needed modifications and upgrading.

Keywords—AES Algorithm, Data Encryption, Data Decryption, Data Security, Vb.net framework


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[7] Varsha B. and Chandel S. G. S. (2012) Implementation of New Advance Image Encryption Algorithm to Enhance Security of Multimedia Component. International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

[8] Zeghid M., Machhout M., Khriji L., Baganne A., and Tourki R., (2007). A Modified AES Based Algorithm for Image Encryption. International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering. Vol. 1 No. 1.


Wind Turbine Control Based DFIG with Reduced Switches AC/AC Converter

Authors: M. R. Banaei, Vahid Rezanejad Asl Bonab

Abstract –This paper presents a control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) using a novel rectifierinverter topology, which consists of only nine IGBT power electronics switches for ac/ac conversion through a dc link. As compare to conventional back-to-back ac/ac converters, the numbers of power semiconductor switches are reduced in the suggested converter. The proposed topology results in reduction of installation area and cost. The operating principle, control strategy and characteristics of wind turbine based proposed ac/ac converter is described in this paper. The performance of proposed DFIG is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

Keywords-- Wind energy, Reduced switch converter, Dfig.


[1] Durga Gautam, Vijay Vittal, Terry Harbour, Impact of Increased Penetration of DFIG-Based Wind Turbine Generators on Transient and Small Signal Stability of Power Systems, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 24 (3) : 1426-1434, Aug. 2009

[2] Serhiy V. BozhkoG, Ramon Blasco-Gimenez, Risheng Li, Jon C. Clare, Greg M. Asher, Control of Offshore DFIG-Based Wind Farm Grid With Line-Commutated HVDC Connection, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 22 (1) : 71-78, 2007.

[3] Hee-Sang Ko, Gi-Gab Yoon, Won-Pyo Hong, Active Use of DFIGBased Variable Speed Wind-Turbine for Voltage Regulation at a Remote Location, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 22 (4) : 1916-1925, 2007.

[4] Nayeem Rahmat Ullah, Torbjorn Thiringer, Variable Speed Wind Turbine for Power System Stability Enhancement, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 22 (1) : 52-60, 2007.

[5] Wei Qiao, Wei Zhou, José M. Aller, Ronald G. Harley, Wind Speed Estimation Based Sensorless Output Maximization Control for a Wind Turbine Driving a DFIG, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol. 23 (3) : 1156-1169, 2008.

[6] S. Y. Yang, X. Zhang, C. W. Zhang, L. Chang, Development of a Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System Based on Doubly Fed Induction Generator, Applied Power Electronics Conference-21 Annual IEEE, March 2007.

[7] Jesus Lopez, Pablo Sanchis, Xavier Roboam, Luis Marroyo, Dynamic Behavior of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator During Three-Phase Voltage Dips, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 22 (3) : 709-717, Sep. 2007.

[8] Istavan Erlich, Jorg Kretschmann, Jens Fortmann, Stphan MuellerEngelhardt, Holger Wrede, Modeling of Wind Turbines Based on Doubly Fed Induction Generators for Power System Stability Studies, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 22 (3) : 909-919, Aug. 2007.

[9] O. Anaya-Lara, F.M Hughes, N. Jenkins, G. Strbac, Provision of a Synchronizing Power Characteristics on DFIG-Based Wind Farms, IET Gener. Disrrib., Vol. 1 (1) : 162-169, January 2007.

[10] Lie Xu, Coordinated Control of DFIG’s Rotor and Grid Side Converters During Network Unbalance, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol. 23 (3) : 1041-1049, May 2008.

[11] Roberto Cardenas, Ruben Pena, German Tobar, Jon Clare, Patrick Wheeler, Greg Asher, Stability Analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion System Based Doubly Fed Induction Generator Fed By a Matrix Converter, IEEE Trans. on industrial Electronics, Vol. 56 (10), Oct. 2009.

[12] H. Nikkhajoei, R. H. Lasseter, Power Quality Enhancement of a Wind-Turbine Generator Under Variable Wind Speeds Using Matrix Converter, Power Electronic Specialists Conference, pp. 1755-1761, 2008.

[13] Congwei Liu, Bin Wu, Navid Zargari, David Xu, A Novel NineSwitch PWM Rectifier-Inverter Topology for Three-Phase UPS Applications, European Conference on Power Electronics Applications, Sep. 2007.

[14] T. Kominami, Y. Fujimoto, A Novel Nine-Switch Inverter for Independent Control of two Three-Phase Loads, Industry Applications Conference, pp. 2346-2350, 2007.

[15] Seyed Mohammad Dehghan Dehnavi, Mustafa Mohamadian, Ali Yazdani, Farhad Ashrafzadeh, Space Vector Modulation for NineSwitch Converters, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol. 25 (6) : 1488-1496, June 2010.


Modelling of Architecture with the Systems Multi-Agents for the Services M2M

Authors: Abdellah KRIOUILE, Hicham MEDROMI

Abstract— There is an infinity of domains (Security and remote monitoring, management of the circulation) which use services of Machine to Machine - M2M - these services allow exchanges between equipments (servers, cameras…) and information systems automatically through networks. The general idea of we work is to conceive then to realize architecture with systems multi-agents which respects the criteria quoted for the services M2M. This architecture should be flexible and applicable over any existing structures M2M. The purpose will thus be to develop a solution with the systems multi-agents to include all M2M service by respecting three parts, the information system, the networks and then the distant equipments. In this paper we are going to model a very precise study case to be able to generalize him later. The treated case is a miniature of big architecture with a system multi-agent for a service Machine to Machine.

Keywords—Architecture, Multi-agents systems, M2M, Modelling, Robitique, Real Time Systems.


[1] Jane W. S. Liu, « Real-time Systems », Prentice Hall, 2000.

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[3] M.Saqalli, F.Qrichi Aniba, H.Medromi. « Développement d’une Plateforme Temps Réel Pour les Systèmes Distribués à Base des Systemes Multi-agents : Application d’une Equipe de Football » Vèm Conférence Internationale en Recherche Opérationnelle Marrakech, 24-27 Mai CIRO ‘10

[4] M.Saqalli, D.Raoui, H.Medromi. « Plateforme Temps Réel de Sécurité Resaux Pour Les Systèmes Distribués » WC2M ENSAM Workshop Codes, Cryptologie et leurs Mathématiques Les 23 , 24 Avril 2010 à l’ENSAM-Meknès

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[6] Jane W. S. Liu, « Real-time Systems », Prentice Hall, 2000.

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[12] M.Saqalli, D.Raoui, H.Medromi. « Plateforme Temps Réel de Sécurité Resaux Pour Les Systèmes Distribués » WC2M ENSAM Workshop Codes, Cryptologie et leurs Mathématiques Les 23 , 24 Avril 2010 à l’ENSAM-Meknès.


A Graphic Constructor for Logic Circuits Design

Authors: Hristo Kiskinov, Vilislav Radev, Maya Stoeva

Abstract — The aim of this paper is the created by the authors graphic LC constructor – a designer tool for logic circuits. This constructor is a software system that enables graphical or tabular setting, drawing and calculation of logic circuits. Its user friendly interface has been built in compliance with the modern requirements and technology for design, allowing versatile use in teaching discrete mathematics.

Keywords—Discrete mathematics, logic circuits, Boolean functions, graphic user interface, information technology, desktop software, UX design, responsible design, generalized model, flat design


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Design and Development of Manually Operated Roasted Groundnut Seeds Peeling Machine

Authors: Ikechukwu Celestine Ugwuoke, Olawale James Okegbile, Ibukun Blessing Ikechukwu, Robert Temitope John

Abstract— This work focused on the design and development of a manually operated roasted groundnut seeds peeling machine. The machine comprises a specially designed peeling chamber which greatly reduces the amount of breakages during peeling and a transmission mechanism which greatly reduces the required effort to drive the system. It has a peeling efficiency of about 85% which is an improvement over previously fabricated designs. The machine is easy to operate and has a capacity of 5.4kg/hr of roasted groundnut seeds. With such capacity, the machine can be used both in medium scale industries and also for domestic needs of peeled roasted groundnut seeds.

Keywords—Design and development, manually operated, roasted groundnut, peeling machine.


[1] Ogunwole O.A. (2013), Design, Fabrication and Testing of A (Manually and Electrically Operated) Roasted Groundnut Decorticating Machine, Journal of Food Science and Quality Management, International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE), pp. 1-10.

[2] R.C. Pradhana, S.N. Naika, N. Bhatnagarb, V.K. Vijaya, (2010), Design, Development and Testing of Hand-Operated Decorticator for Jatropha Fruit, Applied Energy, Volume 87, Issue 3, March 2010, pp. 762–768

[3] K. B. Kale, A.B. Lende, P. B. Kadam, S. V. Rane and A. D. Dhakane, (2011), Modification and Performance Evaluation of Pedal Operated Rotary Type Groundnut Decorticator-Cum-Cleaner, International Journal of Agriculture, Environment & Biotechnology 4(1): 67-72.

[4] M. A. Helmy, A. Mitrroi, S. E. Abdallah, M. A. Basiouny, (2007), Modification and Evaluation of a Reciprocating Machine for Shelling Peanut, Misr J. Ag. Eng., 24(2): 283-298

[5] El-sayed, A. S. (1992), A simple prototype of conical sheller of peanut seeds. Misr J. Ag. Eng., 9(2): 149-159.

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[7] J. N. Maduako, M. Saidu, P. Mathias, I. Vanke, (2006), Testing of an Engine-Powered Groundnut Shelling Machine, Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, 14: 29-37.

[8] A. Mohammed and A. B. Hassan, (2012), Design and Evaluation of a Motorized and Manually Operated Groundnut Shelling Machine, International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development, Issue 2, Vol. 4, pp. 673-682.

[9] R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta, (2005), A Textbook of Machine Design (S. I. Units), Eurasia Publishing House (PVT.) Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110055, pp. 509-557.


Video Based Crowd Density Estimation For wide area Surveillance

Authors: Vivekanand.B.Holeppanavar, Jagadeesh.V.Soppimat, Uma S3, Kavita R Malagavi

Abstract— Crowd density estimation has gained much attention from researchers recently due to availability of low cost cameras and communication bandwidth. In video surveillance applications, counting people and creating temporal profile is of high interest. Many methods based on texture features have been proposed to solve this problem. Most of the algorithm only estimate crowd density on the whole image while ignore crowd density local region. In this paper, we propose novel texture based LBPCM (Local binary pattern co-occurrence matrix) for crowd density estimation. The CSLBP (Center Symmetric local binary patterns) algorithm is used to extract the features from both Gray and Gradient images to improve the performance of crowd density estimation.

Keywords— Crowd density Estimation, novel, CS (Center Symmetric) LBP I


[1] Zhe Wang, Hong Liu, Yueliang Qian and Tao Xu, 2012.Crowd Density Estimation Based On Local Binary Pattern Co-Occurrence Matrix.

[2] CAO Lijun, HUANG Kaiqi,Video-Based Crowd Density Estimation and Prediction System for Wide-Area Surveillance.

[3] ZHAN Beibei, MONEKOSSO D N, REMAGNINO P, et al. Crowd Analysis: A Survey[J]. Machine Vision and Applications, 2008, 19(5-6): 345-357.

[4] Aravinda S. Rao∗,Jayavardhana Gubbi,Slaven Marusic,Paul Stanley†and Marimuthu Palaniswami∗,”Crowd Density Estimation Based on Optical Flow and Hierarchical Clustering”,

[5] GUO Jinnian, WU Xinyu, CAO Tian, et al. Crowd Density Estimation Via Markov Random Field (MRF)[C]// Proceedings of 2010 8th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA): July 7-9, 2010. Jinan, China, 2010: 258-263.

[6] MA Ruihua, LI Liyuan, HUANG Weimin, et al. On Pixel Count Based Crowd Density Estimation for Visual Surveillance[C]// Proceedings of 2004 IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems: December 1-3, 2004. Singapore, 2004: 170-173

[7] PARAGIOS N, RAMESH V. A MRF Based Approach for RealTime Subway Monitoring[C]// Proceedings of 2001 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: December 8-14, 2001. Kauai, HI, USA, 2001: 1034-1040.

[8] LIN S F, CHEN J Y, CHAO H X. Estimation of Number of People in Crowded Scenes Using Perspective Transformation[J]. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A: Systems and Humans, 2001, 31(6): 645-654

. [9] SUBBURAMAN V B, DESCAMPS A, CARINCOTTE C. Counting People in the Crowd Using a Generic Head Detector[C]// Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal-Based Surveillance (AVSS): September 18-21, 2012. Beijing, China, 2012: 470-475.

[10] WU Xinyu, LIANG Guoyuan, LEE K K, et al. Crowd Density Estimation Using Texture Analysis and Learning[C]// Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, 2006 (ROBIO’06): December 17-20, 2006. Kunming, China, 2006: 214-219.

[11] DOLLAR P, TU Zhuowen, PERONA P, et al. Integral Channel Features[C]// Proceedings of 2009 British Machine Vision Conference: September 7-10, 2009. Rama Chellappa, UK, 2009: 1- 11.

[12] BROSTOW G J, CIPOLLA R. Unsupervised Bayesian Detection of Independent Motion in Crowds[ C]// Proceedings of 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and

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[14] CONTED,FOGGIA P, PERCANNELLA G, et al. A Method for Counting People in Crowded Scenes[C]// Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS): August 29-September 1, 2010. Boston, MA, USA, 2010:

[15] Wenhua Ma, Lei Huang and Changping Liu, "Advanced Local Binary Pattern Descriptors for Crowd Estimation," Computational Intelligence and Industrial Application, 2008. PACIIA '08. PacificAsia Workshop on , vol.2, no., pp.958- 962, 19-20 Dec. 2008.


Investigation of Optimum Operating Parameters for BOD & COD Removal using Activated Carbon

Authors: Ghodale M. D., Kankal S. B.

Abstract— This paper deals with the effect of Activated Carbon (AC) on adsorption of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of Sugar Industry wastewater using physical adsorption principle. Experimental investigation is carried out in batches by using AC prepared from Coconut Shell (IAC-C). Effect of various operating parameters such as Adsorbent Dose, pH, Treatment Time and Agitation Speed were investigated. The results are fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results of IAC-C studies revealed that it has higher efficiency in BOD and COD reduction and hence it can be used as an efficient adsorbent for treating sugar industrial effluent.

Keywords—BOD, COD, IAC


[1] Anand K. Parande, A. Sivashanmugam, H. Beulah, N. Palaniswamy, “Performance Evaluation of Low Cost Adsorbents in Reduction of COD in Sugar Industrial Effluent”: Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 168, (2009), pp. 800-805.

[2] Milan M. Lakdawala and OzaPelagia B. N., “Removal of BOD Contributing Components from Sugar Industry Waste Water using Bagasse Fly Ash-Waste Material of Sugar Industry”: Pelagia Research Library, Der Chemica Sinica, vol. 2, issue 4, (2011), pp. 244-251.

[3] Charu Saxena and Sangeeta Madan, “Evaluation of Adsorbents Efficacy for the Removal of Pollutants from Sugar Mill Effluent”: ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, vol. 7, issue 5, (2012), pp. 325-329.

[4] Mohammad-Khah A. and Ansari R., “Activated Charcoal: Preparation, Characterization and Applications: A review article”: International Journal of Chem. Tech Research, vol. 1, issue 4, (2009), pp. 859-864.

[5] Bansode R. R., Losso J. N., Marshall W. E., Rao R. Portier M., R. J., “Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater”: Bioresource Technology, vol. 94, (2004), pp. 129-135.

[6] Ahmad A., Hameed B. H., “Effect of Preparation Conditions of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Waste for Real Textile Wastewater”: Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 173, (2010), pp. 487-493.

[7] Senthil Kumar P. and Kirthika K., “Equilibrium and Kinetic Study of Adsorption of Nickel from Aqueous Solution onto Bael Tree Leaf Powder”: Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 4, issue 4, (2009), pp. 351-363.

[8] Gimba C. E. and Turoti M., “Adsorption Efficiency of Coconut Shell-Based Activated Carbons on Colour of Molasses, Oils, Dissolved Oxygen and Related Parameters from Industrial Effluent”: Science World Journal, vol. 1, (2006), pp. 21-26.

[9] Olafadehan O. A. and Jinadu O. W., “Treatment of Brewery Wastewater Effluent using Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell”: International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, vol. 2, issue 1, (2012), pp. 165-178.

[10] Hameed B. H., Mahmoud D. K. and Ahmad A. L., “Equilibrium Modeling and Kinetic Studies on the Adsorption of Basic Dye by a Low-Cost Adsorbent: Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Bunch Waste”: Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.no. 158, (2008), pp. 65-72.

[11] Bernard E., Jimoh A. and Odigure J. O., “Heavy Metals Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell”: Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 3, issue 8, (2013), pp. 3-9.

[12] Charu Saxena and Sangeeta Madan, “Evaluation of Adsorbents Efficacy for the Removal of Pollutants from Sugar Mill Effluent”: ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, vol. 7, issue 5, (2012), pp. 325-329.

[13] N. Meunier, J. Laroulandie, J.F. Blais, R.D. Tyagi, “Cocoa Shells for Heavy Metal Removal from Acidic Solutions”, Bioresour. Technol., vol. 90, (2003), pp 255- 263.

[14] Muftah H. El-Naas, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Manal Abu Alhaija, “Reduction of COD in Refinery Wastewater through Adsorption on Date-Pit Activated Carbon”: Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 173, (2010), pp. 750-757.

[15] Reeta Kori, Suniti Parashar, Basu D. D., Kamyotra J. S., and Sarita Kumari, “Guide Manual: Water and Wastewater Analysis”, CPCB, pp. 55-59, 65-70 and 80-87.

[16] Foo K. Y. and Hameed B. H., “Insights into the Modeling of Adsorption Isotherm Systems”: Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 156, (2010), pp. 2-10.

[17] Hameed B. H., Mahmoud D. K. and Ahmad A. L., “Equilibrium Modeling and Kinetic Studies on the Adsorption of Basic Dye by a Low-Cost Adsorbent: Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Bunch Waste”: Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.no. 158, (2008), pp. 65-72.


VHDL Design and Implementation of ASIC Processor Core by Using MIPS Pipelining

Authors: G.Triveni, Aswini Kumar Gadige

Abstract— The design of 32 bit ASIC processor core by using Microprocessor Without Interlocked Pipeline Stages (MIPS) with the essence of Super Harvard Architecture (SHARC) is proposed. It was implemented in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit HDL language to reduce the instruction set present in the programmable memory. In this processor design, the sub module adder is designed as advanced Carry Select Adder (CSLA), instead of Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) which reduces the clock period, and response time of system. MIPS pipelining methodology will support the parallel execution of instructions. As the result processor turnaround time value decreases and throughput increases. We have implemented the system in Xilinx ISE 9.2i tool. This design is possible to be dumped on Spartan 3E FPGA kit.



[1] Leonardo Augusto Casillo, Ivan Saraiva Silva,IEEE 2012, A Methodology to adapt data path architecture to a MIPS-1 model.

[2] B. Ramkumar and Harish M Kittur, ―Low Power and AreaEfficient Carry Select Adder‖ IEEE Transactions On Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, VOL. 20, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2012

[3] Gyanesh Savita, Vijay Kumar Magraiya, Gajendra Kulshrestha, Vivek Goyal, Designing of Low Power 16-Bit Carry Select Adder with Less Delay in 45 nm CMOS Process Technology.

[4] Donghoon Lee, Kyunsoo Kwon, Wontae Choi, IEEE 2008, a study on 16 bit DSP. Pusan national University.

[5] CS.Wallace, “A suggestion for fast multipliers”, IEEE Trans, On Electronic computers, Vol EC, no.3 pp .14-17,Feb.

[6] MIPPS Technologies. MIPS_32 Architecture For Programmers. Vol.II: The MIPS_32 Instruction Set,2008.

[7] Kui YI, Yue Hia DING, A study on MIPS, IEEE 2009, Wuhan Polytechnic University. [8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIPS_architecture.


To Maintain Privacy Using Add Multiply and K-Mediod

Authors: Isha Sahni, Hare Ram Shah

Abstract— To conduct data mining, there is often need to collect data from various parties. Privacy concerns may prevent the parties from directly sharing the data and some types of information about the data. Data collection is a necessary step in data mining process. Due to privacy reasons, collecting data from different parties becomes difficult. The challenge behind this is that multiple parties should collaboratively conduct data mining without breaching data privacy. Objective of PPDM is to preserve confidential information by applying data mining tasks without modifying the original data. In this paper the study of privacy preserving using Add Multiply protocol and K-Mediod, based on homomorphic encryption and digital envelope techniques, defined to exchange the data while keeping it private. A secure protocol for multiple parties to conduct the desired computation is developed. The solution is distributed, i.e., there is no central, trusted party having access to all the data. Keywords-- PPDM, Decision Tree Algorithm, K-Mediod Clustering, Add To Multiply Protocol Based Homomorphic Encryption, Secure Multi-Party Computation


[1] “A Crypto-Based Approach to Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Data Mining”, Justin Zhan and Stan Matwin on February 22,2010.

[2] Jianming Zhu, “A New Scheme to Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Data Mining”, 2009 Fifth International Conference on Information Assurance and Security.

[3] Ms.S.Nithya, Mrs. P.Senthil Vadivu, Volume 2, No.6, June 2013, “Efficient Decision Tree Based Privacy Preserving Approach For Unrealized Data Sets”.

[4] R.Raju, R.Komalavalli, V.Kesavkumar, Second International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, ICETET-09, “Privacy Maintenance Collaborative Data Mining –A Practical Approach”.

[5] “Using Homomorphic Encryption and Digital Envelope Techniques for Privacy Preserving Collaborative Sequential Pattern Mining”, Justin Zhan, Carnegie Mellon University on February 23,2010.

[6] “Using Homomorphic Encryption For Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Decision Tree Classification”, Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Data Mining (CIDM 2007), Justin Zhan.

[7] “Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Data Mining”, Justin Zhan, Carnegie Mellon University, USA, February 23,2010

[8] “Privacy Preserving K-Mediod Clustering”, Justin Zhan. [9] M. Shaneck and Y. Kim, “Efficient Cryptographic Primitives for Private Data Mining”, Proc. 43rd Hawaii Int’l Conf. System Sciences (HICSS), pp. 1-9, 2010.


Shifting Paradigms in IT: An Overview on VLC & BLE

Authors: Nupur Tyagi, Amit Jain

Abstract— Researchers across the globe have come up with a new technology that connects some devices/ transmitters like apple’s ibeacon or in-store LED lights with consumers' smart phones and then using a downloadable app, people will be able to locate items on their shopping lists. Thus, allowing retailers to track the exact location of customers via their mobile devices. Present paper focuses on what this technology is, how it works and proposes a number of ways in which retailers might leverage the proximity of making these devices more consumer-friendly.

Keywords— BLE, iBeacon, Philips retail smart lighting system, Smartphones, VLC


[1] iBeacons Bible 1.0 Andy Cavallini (Gaia-Matrix).

[2] "Image Sensor Communication". VLC Consortium.

[3] "About Visible Light Communication". VLC Consortium.

[4] Philips Creates Shopping Assistant with LEDs and Smart Phone By Martin LaMonica.

[5] wikipedia ―http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visible_light_communication‖

[6] Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth_low_energy

[7] An introductory guide on VLC by pureVLC.

[8] ―http://www.newscenter.philips.com/main/standard/news/press/2014 /20140217-intelligent-in-store-led-lighting-communicates-withyour-smartphone.wpd #.UxSEyGfnYjU‖ Philips.

[9] iBeacon briefing: What is it, and what can we expect from it? Written by: Ben Lovejoy.

[10] Nic Newman Opinion Piece Apple iBeacon technology briefing

[11] Wikipedia ―http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBeacon.


An Inexpensive Experimental Setup for Teaching The Concepts of Da Vinci Surgical Robot

Authors: S.Vignesh kishan kumar, G. Anitha

Abstract— Robot-assisted surgery is an alternative to conventional laparoscopic and traditional open surgical techniques. Currently, the primary commercially available robot-assisted surgical system, the da Vinci surgical robot does not provide end effector interaction forces to the operator. The prime goal of this work was to construct and develop a robotic arm of low cost for surgical operation. The robotic arm was developed with five degrees of freedom and it is capable of performing simple tasks such as light weight material handling, drilling and cutting operation. The robotic arm is implemented with several servo motors acts as a link between the arms and performs arm movements. Additionally our goal was to develop a sensing system to evaluate the end effector tool-tissue or bone interaction forces to perceive force feedback. Sensors such as force sensor and ultrasonic sensor were developed to measure surgical tool’s force and the depth. The visual feedback is perceived by attaching a video camera to the robotic arm for monitoring the surgical operations. Additionally different surgical tools were fitted to the robotic arm and an embedded system allowing the attachment of surgical tool to perform its operation.

Keywords— End effector, force feedback, robotically - assisted surgery, telesurgery, telemanipulator, tool-interaction force, visual feedback


[1] Gabriel I. Barbash, and Sherry A. Glied. 2010. New Technology and Health Care Costs - The Case of Robot-Assisted Surgery New England Journal of Medicine.

[2] G. Guthart and K. Salisbury. 2000. “The intuitive telesurgical system: Overview and application,” in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE ICRA.

[3] Industrial and Service Robots, IFR International Federation of Robotics, http://www.ifr.org/home.

[4] Information about da Vinci surgical system and robotic surgical systems http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/products.

[5] Haidegger, Tamas.2009.Force Sensing and Force Control for Surgical Robots” Proceedings of the 7th IFAC Symposium on Modeling and Control in Biomedical Systems, Aalborg, Denmark: IFAC.

[6] Berkelman, Peter and Ji Ma. 2009. A compact modular teleoperated robotic system for laparoscopic surgery, The International Journal of Robotics Research.

[7] Lum, Mitchell J H. 2009. The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgical System. The International Journal of Robotics Research.

[8] Yeh-liang Hsu.2001 A modular mechatronic system for automatic bone drilling” world scientific Journal.

[9] Ashraf Elfasakhany. 2011 Design and Development of a Competitive Low-Cost Robot Arm with Four Degrees of Freedom scientific research.


An Information Security Scheme for Cloud based Environment using 3DES Encryption Algorithm

Authors: Shaunak S.Ganorkar, Shilpi U.Vishwakarma, Sagar D.Pande

Abstract— Cloud computing is the apt technology for the decade. It allows user to store large amount of data in cloud storage and use as and when required, from any part of the world, via any terminal equipment. While Cloud services offer flexibility, scalability and economies of scale, there have been commensurate concerns about security. On the similar terms, we have chosen to make use of a combination of authentication technique and key exchange algorithm blended with an encryption algorithm. In this project, we have proposed to make use of 3DES algorithm which is a wellknown symmetric cryptosystem and is widely used for secure data transmission, along with that we will blend it with Random Key Generator and Graphical Password to add an extra security measure. This proposed architecture of three way mechanism and the use of symmetric method of encryption make it tough for hackers to crack the security system, thereby protecting data stored in cloud. This Cipher Block Chaining system is to be secure for clients and server. The security architecture of the system is designed by using DES cipher block chaining, which eliminates the fraud that occurs today with stolen data. There is no danger of any data sent within the system being intercepted, and replaced. The system with encryption is acceptably secure, but that the level of encryption has to be stepped up, as computing power increases. Results in order to be secure the system the communication between modules is encrypted using symmetric key

Keywords— Cloud, Cloud Security, Cryptosystem, 3DES, Random Key Generator, Block Cipher Chaining, Symmetric Techniques.


[1] A. Juels and J. Burton S. Kaliski, ―PORs: Proofs of Retrievability for Large Files,‖ Proc. of CCS ’07, pp. 584–597, 2007.

[2] H. Shacham and B. Waters, ―Compact Proofs of Retrievability,‖ Proc. of Asiacrypt ’08, Dec. 2008.

[3] K. D. Bowers, A. Juels, and A. Oprea, ―Proofs of Retrievability: Theory and implementation,‖ Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2008/175, 2008, http://eprint.iacr.org/.

[4] K. D. Bowers, A. Juels, and A. Oprea, ―HAIL: A High-Availability and Integrity Layer for Cloud Storage,‖ Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2008/489, 2008, http://eprint.iacr.org/.

[5] G. Ateniese, R. Burns, R. Curtmola, J. Herring, L. Kissner, Z. Peterson, and D. Song, ―Provable Data Possession at Untrusted Stores,‖ Proc. Of CCS ’07, pp. 598–609, 2007

[6] G. Ateniese, R. D. Pietro, L. V. Mancini, and G. Tsudik, ―Scalable and Efficient Provable Data Possession,‖ Proc. of SecureComm ’08, pp. 1 [7] R. Curtmola, O. Khan, R. Burns, and G. Ateniese, ―MR-PDP: Multiple- Replica Provable Data Possession,‖ Proc. of ICDCS ’08, pp. 411–420,

[8] M. Lillibridge, S. Elnikety, A. Birrell, M. Burrows, and M. Isard, ―A Cooperative Internet Backup Scheme,‖ Proc. of the 2003 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (General Track), pp. 29–41, 2003.

[9] D. L. G. Filho and P. S. L. M. Barreto, ―Demonstrating Data Possession and Uncheatable Data Transfer,‖ Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/150, 2006, http://eprint.iacr.org/.

[10] M. A. Shah, M. Baker, J. C. Mogul, and R. Swaminathan, ―Auditing to Keep Online Storage Services Honest,‖ Proc. 11th USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HOTOS ’07), pp. 1–6, 2007.

[11] T. S. J. Schwarz and E. L. Miller, ―Store, Forget, and Check: Using Algebraic Signatures to Check Remotely Administered Storage,‖ Proc. of ICDCS ’06, pp. 12–12, 2006.


A Comparison Study Between Event Chain Methodology And Critical Path Method In The Construction Industry

Authors: Pranam B, Madhusudan G Kalibhat, Sudharshan KR

Abstract— In this paper, we look to describe a new perspective to consider and quantify uncertainty in construction schedules where a methodology was presented by modeling construction project scheduling using event chains, classification of the events and event chains, identification of critical events, analysis of effect of the events on project duration, and chance of project completion to find out the applicability of the proposed methodology. A residential apartment is considered as a pilot project and a project specific schedule risk analysis system and risk break down structure is also developed as an essential part. Earned Value Analysis is carried out to quantify the performance of the scheduling technique through Schedule Performance Index. The average Scheduling Performance Index value for the Event Chain Methodology schedule over the duration of the project is found to be 10.96% greater than that of Critical Path Method which can be used as one of the contributing factors to promote usage of Event Chain Methodology. Keywords—Event chain methodology, Critical Path Method, Earned Value Analysis, Project Scheduling, Scheduling Risk Analysis System.


[1] B. Mulholland, J.C., Risk Assessment in Construction Schedules, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 125, No. 1, (1999) 8-15.

[2] Cho J. G., Y.B.J. An Uncertainty Importance Measure of Activities in PERT Networks, International Journal of Production Research, 1964 (12): p. 460-470.

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[4] Goldratt, E., Critical Chain, Great Barrington, Mass: North River Press (1997).

[5] Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), Third Edition, Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute (2004).

[6] Lev Virine, Michael Trumper, Schedule Network Analysis Using Event Chain Methodology, Intaver Institute Inc. (2004).

[7] Wei Peng, Liangfa Shen, Deyin Liu, Construction Project Scheduling Risk Analysis Using Event Chain Methodology: An Example of Airport Terminal Project, Trans Tech Publications, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 209-211 (2012) 1330-1338

[8] K K Chitkara (1998), ―Construction Project Management- Planning, Scheduling and Controlling‖, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited.

[9] Russel, A. and Wong, W. (1993), ―New Generation of Planning Structures,‖ Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 119(2), 196-214.

[10] Joseph A Lukas(2008), ―Earned Value Analysis – Why it Doesn’t Work?‖, AACE INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS (EVM.01), USA


Control Strategy & Mathematical Modeling of BLDC Motor in Electric Power Steering

Authors: P. Bala Murali Krishna, S. Syam Kumar, M. Nirmala, P. Vamsi Krishna, V. Pavani

Abstract—The aim of the paper is to design a control strategy of the BLDC motor used in EPS system is proposed, then a simulation model of control system using in BLDC motor. In the developed model of BLDC motor, the characteristics of the speed, torque, back EMF, voltages as well as currents are effectively monitored and analysed which serve a design method for a further research of BLDC motor in EPS.

Keywords-Electric Power Steering (EPS); Brushless DC (BLDC) motor; mathematical modelling; PID controller; simulation analysis.


[1] Pragsen Pillay and R. Krishnan, “Modeling, simulation and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives. II. The brushless DC motor drive”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.25,no. 2, pp. 274 – 279, Mar/Apr 1989.

[2] Padmaraja yedamale, "Brushless DC(BLDC) Motor Fundamentals”, Microchip Technology Inc., 2003.

[3] Zhaojun Meng, Rui Chen, Changhi Sun and Yuejun An, “The Mathematical Simulation Model of Brushless DC Motor System ” in Proc. of International Conference’

[4] Congzhao Cai, Hui Zhang, Jinhong Liu and Yongjun Gao are given “Modeling and Simulation of BLDC motor in Electric Power Steering”.

[5] G.R.Puttalakshmi and S.Paramasivam. Two Refernce Based Controller For Bldc Motor in Electric PowerAssisted Steering.2ndInternational Conference on Advances in Electrical and ElectronicsEngineering (ICAEEE'2013) Dec. 20-21, 2013 Bali(Indonesia).


High Secured Location-based Efficient Routing Protocols in MANET’s

Authors: Durgesh Pyati, Rekha.S

Abstract—Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) is an infrastructure less network consists of mobile nodes and the nodes can join and leave the network dynamically. Every movable device can act as router as well as end user. In MANET security is the major concern for the protected communication. Any user can accessible in the MANET’s; Anonymity is needed, so that almost all the attacks are avoided. Providing anonymity to the routes, source and destination is a major challenge, for this proposes we proposed a method to offer high anonymity protection at a low cost, is Anonymous Location-based Efficient Routing protocol (ALERT).ALERT dynamically partitions the network field into zones and randomly chooses nodes in zones as intermediate relay nodes, which form a non-traceable anonymous route. ALERT provides high level security to sources, routes and destinations. At the end we compare ALERT with other protocols in terms of efficiency and cost.

Keywords— Mobile ad hoc networks, anonymity, routing protocol, geographical routing, GPSR algorithm.


[1] Sk.Md.M. Rahman, M. Mambo, A. Inomata, and E. Okamoto, “AnAnonymous On-Demand Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int’l Symp. Applications on Internet (SAINT), 2006.

[2] Z. Zhi and Y.K. Choong, “Anonymizing Geographic Ad HocRouting for Preserving Location Privacy,” Proc. Third Int’l WorkshopMobile Distributed Computing (ICDCSW), 2005.

[3] V. Pathak, D. Yao, and L. Iftode, “Securing Location Aware Services over VANET Using Geographical Secure Path Routing,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Vehicular Electronics and safety (ICVES), 2008.

[4] K.E. Defrawy and G. Tsudik, “ALARM: Anonymous LocationAided Routing in Suspicious MANETs,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf.Network Protocols (ICNP), 2007.

[5] K.E. Defrawy and G. Tsudik, “PRISM: Privacy-Friendly Routing in Suspicious MANETs (and VANETs),” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), 2008.

[6] K. El-Khatib, L. Korba, R. Song, and G. Yee, “Anonymous Secure Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int’l Conf. ParallelProcessing Workshops (ICPPW), 2003.

[7] X. Wu, J. Liu, X. Hong, and E. Bertino, “Anonymous GeoForwarding in MANETs through Location Cloaking,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1297-1309, Oct. 2008

[8] Komal Chandra Joshi et al, “Secured Position Aided Ad hoc Routing Security of mobile ad hoc network with five layer security architecture’’ International Journal ITT, India, Dec 2010.

[9] S. Ratnasamy, B. Karp, S. Shenker, D. Estrin, R. Govindan, L. Yin,and F. Yu, “Data-Centric Storage in Sensornets with GHT, aGeographic Hash Table,” Mobile Network Applications, vol. 8, no. 4,pp. 427-442, 2003.J. Raymond, “Traffic

[10] J. Raymond, “Traffic Analysis: Protocols, Attacks, Design Issues, and Open Problems,” Proc. Int’l Workshop Designing Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Design Issues in Anonymity and Unobservability (WDIAU), pp. 10-29, 2001.

[11] X. Wu, “AO2P: Ad Hoc On-Demand Position-Based Private Routing Protocol,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 335-348, July/Aug. 2005.

[12] B. Zhu, Z. Wan, M.S. Kankanhalli, F. Bao, and R.H. Deng, “Anonymous Secure Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE 29th Ann. Int’l Conf. Local Computer Network (LCN), 2004.

[13] X. Wu, “DISPOSER: Distributed Secure Position Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Research Articles,” Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol. 6, pp. 357-373, 2006.

[14] A. Pfitzmann, M. Hansen, T. Dresden, and U. Kiel, “Anonymity, Unlinkability, Unobservability, Pseudonymity, and Identity Management a Consolidated Proposal for Terminology, Version 0.31,” technical report, 2005.

[15] K. El-Khatib, L. Korba, R. Song, and G. Yee, “Anonymous Secure Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Parallel Processing Workshops (ICPPW), 2003.

[16] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, “A Survey of Mobility Model for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2, pp. 483-502, 2002.

[17] X. Hong, M. Gerla, G. Pei, and C.C. Chiang, “A Group Mobility Model for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. Second ACM Int’l Workshop Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM), 1999.

[18] X. Wu, “DISPOSER: Distributed Secure Position Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Research Articles,” Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol. 6, pp. 357-373, 2006.

[19] Karim El Defrawy, “Privacy-Preserving Location-Based OnDemand Routing in MANETs” IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In Communications, VOL. 29,NO. 10, DECEMBER 2011 NO. 2003.


Microcontroller Based High Resolution Temperature Monitoring Data Acquisition System with Graphical User Interface

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Nath, Sharmila Nath, Kanak Chandra Sarmah

Abstract— In this article implementation of a temperature monitoring system using 8-bit Freescale semiconductor microcontroller MC9S08JM60 which is intended for general purpose application was described. The firmware was developed in DEMO9S08JM60 low-cost development system by PE Microcomputer Systems Inc. supporting Freescale MC9S08JM60 microcontrollers. The microcontroller firmware was developed in Freescale CodeWarrior Studio integrated development environment in C. The programmable I2C based Digital Temperature Sensor TMP275 is used for sensing the temperature. The microcontroller reads the digital temperature output of the sensor via the 2-wire I2C interface and displays the same on the PC serial console. The graphical user interface (GUI) system running in the PC allows the user to set the temperature threshold and other parameters for acquiring the temperature data. The Temperature Sensor TMP275 is capable to measure the temperature with a resolution of 0.0625°C (typical value) and provides accuracy of 0.0625°C (typical value) and 1°C (maximum) over a range of -40°C till +125°C. The system has been designed to measure the temperature over a range of -40°C till +125°C. The ambient temperature over a specified range was measured repeatedly and a number of observation was made. The experimental results shows consistently same results and shows that the system has higher reliability and precision.

Keywords— Embedded system, Freescale MC9S08JM60 microcontroller, Graphical user interface(GUI), LabVIEW(Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench), TMP275.


[1] Harsh Vardhan, Measurement-Priciples and Practises, Macmillan India Ltd., Delhi,(1993).

[2] TMP275, Datasheet TMP275: 0.5°C Digital out temperature sensor, SBOS363D-June2006-Revised August 2007.

[3] Temperature Sensor Design Guide, www.microchip.com/analog

[4] Wang Tianmiao, The embedded system design and the example, Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2003. pp. 4-5.

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[6] C. Johnson, Process Control Instrumentation Technology, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (1996).

[7] Michael J. Pont, Embedded C, Pearson Education Ltd. [8] Shibu K V, Introduction to embedded systems, Mc Graw Hill.


Critical Assessment of Green Sand Moulding Processes

Authors: Raghwendra Banchhor, S.K.Ganguly

Abstract -Although there are many new advanced technologies for metal casting, green sand casting remains one of the most widely used casting processes today due to the low cost of raw materials, a wide variety of castings with respect to size and composition, and the possibility of recycling the molding sand. The green sand casting process is one of the most versatile processes in manufacturing because it is used for most metals and alloys even with high melting temperatures such as iron, copper, and nickel. Understanding the conventional and modern green sand moulding method can help redesign for manufacturability and utilize processes for modernization of foundry; that meet specific requirements. The versatility of moulding is demonstrated by the number of molding processes currently available. This wide range of choices offers design engineers and component users’ enormous flexibility in their metal forming needs. Each process offers distinct advantages and benefits when matched with the proper product application. This paper summarizes the process capability, advantages and limitations of various conventional and modern green sand molding processes.

Keywords - Air flow-squeeze moulding, Casting, Flaskless moulding, Green sand, Tight flask moulding.


[1] Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid , " Manufacturing Engineering and Technology ", 4th edition , Pearson,New Delhi,2013

[2] Richard W heine,carl R loper,Pilip C Rosenthal,”Principle of metal casting,tata McGrahill,New Delhi,

[3] Rao T.V.“Metal casting principle and practice”, New age publication, New Delhi 2010.

[4] B.Ravi ,”Metal Casting computer aided design and and analysis” PHI,Learning New Delhi 2011

[5] CASTING SOURCE DIRECTORY,” Guide to Casting and Molding Processes” ENGINEERED CASTING SOLUTIONS, 2006

[6] Heinrich Wagner Sinto, “SEIATSU Air-Flow Squeeze Moulding Process” Maschinenfabrik Gmbh Sintokogio Group, Bad Laasphe, Germany, Vo 1000,06.2011

[7] Heinrich Wagner Sinto, “Seiatsu Moulding Machine HSP” Maschinenfabrik Gmbh Sintokogio Group, Bad Laasphe, Germany, Vo 1000,06.2011

[8] Hiroyasu Makino, Shuichi Tsuzuki and Minoru Hirata, “Development of new molding process using aeration sand filling and practical use of green sand molding machine”, International Foundry Research 65 (2013) No. 4 Toyokawa, Aichi, Japan,6 March 2013

[9] DISA MATCH article by Michael Colditz, “State of the art in the manufacture of flaskless, horizontally parted moulds”18/06/2012

[10] Features of FDNX, 6th International Ankiros Foundry Congress 2012 Istanbul, 13-15 September 2012


A Study on Complex Wavelet Transform and Its Application to Image Denoising

Authors: Debalina Jana, Kaushik Sinha

Abstract— This work addresses to a study on the wavelet transform and complex wavelet transform to demonstrate the capabilities of them in digital image denoising application. Standard Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has some drawbacks like shift sensitivity, poor directionality and absence of phase information. To avoid these limitations, Complex Wavelet Transform (CWT) can be used. Complex Wavelet Transform is an extension of standard Discrete Wavelet Transform. In this paper, the capability of Complex Wavelet Transform is discussed in the process of noise removal from different images.

Keywords— Discrete Wavelet Transform, Complex Wavelet Transform, Image Denoising, Thresholding, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio.


[1] D.L. Donoho, De-Noising by Soft Thresholding, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 43, pp. 933-936, 1993.

[2] D.L. Donoho and I.M. Johnstone, Adapting to unknown smoothness via wavelet shrinkage, Journal of American Statistical Assoc., Vol. 90, no. 432, pp 200-1224, Dec. 1995.

[3] Mark Miller, Member, IEEE, and Nick Kingsbury, Member, IEEE, ―Image Denoising Using Derotated Complex Wavelet Coefficients‖ - IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 17, No. 9, pp. 1500– 1511, September 2008.

[4] S. Grace Chang, Student Member, IEEE, Bin Yu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Martin Vetterli, Fellow, IEEE, ―Adaptive Wavelet Thresholding for Image Denoising and Compression‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 1532–1546, September 2000.

[5] ―Dual Tree Complex Wavelets‖ by Nick Kingsbury, Signal Processing Group, Deptt. Of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK, September 2004.

[6] Hari Om, Mantosh Biswas, ―An Improved Image Denoising Method Based on Wavelet Thresholding‖, Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 2012, 3, pp. 109-116, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jsip.2012. 31014.

[7] ―Image Denoising Using Wavelet Thresholding Hybrid Approach‖ by Ruban Brar and Rajesh Kumar, Proceedings of SARC-IRAJ International Conference, 22nd June 2013, New Delhi, India, ISBN: 978-81-927147-6-9.

[8] Anil Anthony Bharath and Jeffrey Ng, ―A Steerable Complex Wavelet Construction and Its Application to Image Denoising‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 14, NO. 7, pp. 948– 959, July 2005.

[9] Ashish Khare and Uma Shanker Tiwary, Member, IEEE, ―A New Method for Deblurring and Denoising of Medical Images using Complex Wavelet Transform‖, Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference, Shanghai, China, September 1-4, 2005.

[10] Paul Hill, Alin Achim and David Bull, ―The Undecimated Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform and Its Application To Bivariate Image Denoising Using A Cauchy Model‖, IEEE Transaction, 978-1-4673- 2533-2/12.

[11] Jingyu Yang, Wenli Xu, Yao Wang, and Qionghai Dai, ―2-D Anisotropic Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Packets and Its Application to Image Denoising‖, IEEE Transaction, 978-1-4244-1764-3/08.

[12] P.R. Hill, A. Achim, and D.R. Bull, M.E. Al-Mualla, ―Image Denoising Using Dual Tree Statistical Models for Complex Wavelet Transform Coefficients Magnitude‖, IEEE Transaction, 978-1-4799- 2341-0/13.

[13] Tang Hui, Liu Zengli, Chen Lin, Chen Zaiyu, ―Wavelet Image Denoising Based on The New Threshold Function‖, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE 2013).

[14] Nima Khademi Kalantari and Pradeep Sen, ―Removing the Noise in Monte Carlo Rendering with General Image Denoising Algorithms‖, © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

[15] S. M. Mahbubur Rahman, M. Omair Ahmad, Fellow, IEEE, and M. N. S. Swamy, Fellow, IEEE, ―Bayesian Wavelet-Based Image Denoising Using the Gauss–Hermite Expansion‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 17, NO. 10, pp. 1755–1770, October 2008.

[16] N. Kingsbury. The dual-tree complex wavelet transform: a new efficient tool for image restoration and enhancement. In Proc. of EUSIPCO, pages 319–322, Rhodes, Greece, 1998.

[17] N. Kingsbury. Image processing with complex wavelets. In Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A, volume 357, pages 2543–2560, Special issue for the discussion meeting on ―Wavelets: the key to intermittent information?‖ (Held Feb. 24-25, 1999), Sept. 1999.

[18] Jiecheng Xie, Student Member, IEEE, Dali Zhang, and Wenli Xu, ―Spatially Adaptive Wavelet Denoising Using the Minimum Description Length Principle‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 13, NO. 3, pp. 179–187, February 2004.

[19] Javier Portilla, Vasily Strela, Martin J. Wainwright, Eero P. Simoncelli, ―Javier Portilla, Vasily Strela, Martin J. Wainwright, Eero P. Simoncelli‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 12, NO. 11, pp. 1338–1351, November 2003.

[20] D. L. Donoho, I. M. Johnstone, G. Kerkyacharian, and D. Picard ―Wavelet shrinkage: asympotia?‖, J. R. Statist. Soc. B. vol.57, pp. 301 (1995).

[21] DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING – Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods and Steven L. Eddins, Pearson Education.

[22] The wavelet tutorial by Robi Polikar.

[23] Priyanka Kamboj and Versha Rani, ―A BRIEF STUDY OF VARIOUS NOISE MODEL AND FILTERING TECHNIQUES‖, Journal of Global Research in Computer Sc., Vol 4, No. 4, April 2013.

[24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_noise


An Overview on Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Network: Challenges, Impacts, and Detection Approach

Authors: Saurabh Ughade, R.K. Kapoor, Ankur Pandey

Abstract— The wireless sensor network is an emerging technology in the field of communication. This technology has many advantages but the security issues have been not given much consideration till now. Due to this neglecting, few loopholes in the security have started to occur such as wormhole attack, blackhole attack, etc. In this paper the various aspects have been covered regarding security provisioning in wireless sensor networks. Also some light has been thrown on the various types of attacks and its classification. The special attention has been paid to wormhole attack with the support of some already published works.

Keywords— Attacks, Authentication, Blackhole, Tunnelling, Wormhole, Wireless Sensor Network;


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Modeling and Power Management of a Remote Stand Alone PV-Wind Hybrid System

Authors: M.J. Shawon, L. A. Lamont, L. El Chaar

Abstract— The main focus of this study is to design a novel stand alone PV-wind hybrid energy system for remote locations where grid extension is not feasible or is expensive. The hybrid PV-wind stand alone energy system shows higher reliability compared to wind or PV stand alone systems as wind and solar technologies complement each other. A Matlab/Simulink model of an integrated stand alone PV-wind hybrid system using a battery for storage and backup protection is presented. The individual components of the system are discussed and modeled. A novel and unique control strategy is designed and simulated to control the power flow of the system while maintaining the battery charging and discharging limit. In addition, different converter design and maximum power point tracking control are applied to ensure efficient and reliable power supply under various atmospheric and loading conditions.

Keywords — Hybrid Energy, Stand Alone System, Photovoltaic, Wind Energy, Power Management, Matlab/Simulink and Control.


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Genetic Variability for Seed Yield and its Component Characters in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Under Allahabad
Agro-Climatic Conditions.

Authors: Madan Maurya, A. K. Chaurasia, Arvind Kumar, C. L. Maurya, B. M. Bara, Mukesh Kumar, Prashant K. Rai

Abstract-- The present investigation was carried out with 40 genotypes during Rabi 2006-07 in RBD having three replications of field Experimentation Center of Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad. The mean performance of genotypic IBWSN 1062, IBWSN 1056, IBWSN 1069, IBWSN 1068 and IBWSN 1077 was recorded highest for yield and yield per plant, days to maturity , plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight, grain yield per plant, respectively. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences studied. The highest genetic variability was observed for yield per plant followed by number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and plant height. The highest phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) was recorded for yield per plant followed 1000 grain weight and number of grains per spike. The highest genotypic coefficient variance (GCV) was observed for yield per plant while the characters 1000 grains weight, grain per spike and spike length showed moderate value of GCV indicating that there could be used as selection indices for yield improvement. Higher heritability, in broad sense, was recorded for yield per plant, 1000 grain weight, grain per spike and plant height while moderate heritability observed for days to heading days to maturity and spike length. High heritability indicates that heritability may be due to higher contribution of genetic component and thus the traits may be improved by progeny selection. Estimates of genetic advance as percent of mean were highest for yield per plant, grains per spike and 1000 grain weight

Keyworld-- Wheat, Genetic Advance, Heritability (Broad Sense), Genotypic Variance, Phenotypic Variance, GCV and PCV


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3-Level Password Authentication System

Authors: Lalu Varghese, Nadiya Mathew, Sumy Saju, Vishnu K Prasad

Abstract—In the current state there are many authentication schemes and most of these suffer from many weaknesses. Some of them are based on the physical and behavioral properties of the user, and some others are based on knowledge of the user such as textual and graphical passwords. Furthermore, there are other authentication schemes that are based on tokens, such as smart cards i.e., based on what you have. Among the various authentication schemes, the most commonly used schemes are textual password and token-based schemes, or the combination of both. However, both these authentication schemes are vulnerable to certain attacks. In this paper, we present a 3-level password authentication scheme, which is a multi-factor authentication system. To be authenticated, this project plans to present a 3-level password system by combining the features of the existing authentication schemes. The three different levels used in the 3-level password authentication scheme are image ordering, color pixels and the one time password (OTP).We use different hash functions such as SHA-1,MD5 for the generation of OTP.

Keywords—Authentication, graphical passwords, multifactor, textual passwords, 3-level passwords, image ordering, colour pixel, one time password, SHA-1


[1] Fawaz A. Alsulaiman and Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Senior Member, IEEE 2008 Three-Dimensional Password for More Secure Authentication

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[3] Sagar Acharya1, Apoorva Polawar2, P.Y.Pawar. Student, Information Technology, Sinhgad Academy Of Engineering/ University of Pune. Two Factor Authentication Using Smartphone Generated One Time Password

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Merkle-Damgard_hash_big.svg


Strip Tillage Seeding Technique: A Better Option for Utilizing Residual Soil Moisture in Rainfed Moisture Stress Environments of North-West Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Israil Hossain, M K Gathala, TP Tiwari, M S Hossain

Abstract- Strip tillage seeding system technique is a conservation agriculture based resource conserving technology which employs tilling the soil in strip just in front of furrow opener and place seed, and fertilizer in line at right depth in a single operation just after aman rice harvest to utilize the residual soil moisture for crop establishment especially in rainfed moisture stress areas. The rotating strip blades can operate through moderate anchored previous crop residues without plugging and dragging with furrow openers. The seeder creates 4-6 cm wide planting strip and produce good tilth for better seed and soil contact which facilities better plant germination. A multi-location experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of strip tillage for wheat, lentil and mungbean during 2008-2011 in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. The higher soil moisture (16.4 %) was maintained at 35 days after seeding under strip tillage than full tillage treatments (13.4 %). The effective field capacity was 27 % higher with strip tillage than minimum tillage (PTOS). The total time requirement for field preparation and planting was highest in conventional tillage (17.5 hr/ha), intermediate in minimum tillage (6.7 hr/ha) and lowest in strip tillage (5.26 hr/ha). The fuel consumption during seeding operation was 57 % and 38 % lower than conventional and minimum tillage, respectively. The strip tillage achieved higher grain yield in all three crops with a net saving in cost of sowing BDT 3050/- ha-1 than conventional tillage. In this study, we found that the break-even point of strip tillage seeder was 4.0 ha in a year for service providers.

Key words- Strip tillage, minimum tillage, conservation agriculture, break-even point


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