S.No.

Volume 7, Issue 12, December 2018

1.

A Novel Approach towards designing highly secure Cryptography Encryption Algorithm

Authors: Neeraj Singh, Prof. Nitin Choudhary

Abstract— This study was conducted to determine the stress tolerance markers in the corn genotypes (31D24, ADASA16, P1429) with biotic strase (S. nonagrioides Lef.) Resistance determined. The study was carried out in open field conditions in Siirt Province in Southeast of Turkey trial sites in three replications in 2015 and 2016 years with randomized blocks divided plot design. The average number of holes per year (2 years) / 100 internodi (number of years) was determined in the 31D24 genotype and the lowest P1429 genotype. However, the longest tunnel length (cm) was detected at the P1429 genotype, the lowest 31D24 genotype. It was determined that the tunnels were opened and fed from the varieties having high number of holes / 100 internods (31D24), but they did not show feeding behavior and the tunnels with long tunnel length (P1429) had long tunnels in the body. The highest yield (1039.83 kg da-1 ) for two years was determined at 31D24 with low live larvae + pupa and low tunnel length. The lowest yield (1008.16 kg da-1 ) was determined in the P1429 genotype with high tunnel length and high viable larvae + pupa. As a result of the research, it can be suggested that the number of holes of genotypes / 100 internodi in biotic strase (S.nonagrioides Lef.) Endurance lines in corn genotype lines, the tunel length and the number of live larvae are used as biotic stress tolerance indicator.

Keywords— Full irrigation, Corncob worm (S.nonagrioides Lef.), Maize (Z. mays L.) Population, Tolerance, Turkey

References-

[1] Kün, E. 1994. TahıllarIı (Sıcak İklim Tahılları). A.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Halkla İlişkiler ve Basım Ünitesi. Ankara. 317.

[2] Süzer, S., 2003. Trakya Koşullarında Sürdürülebilir Tarımın Toprak Verimliliği ve Ekosistemin Korunmasına Etkileri. Keşan Sempozyumu. 15-16 Mayıs 2003, Keşan. (in turkish)

[3] TÜİK, 2016. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. http://www.tuik.gov.tr. (in turkish)

[4] Şimşek, N. Ve Güllü, M., 1992. Akdeniz Bölgesi’nde Mısırda Zarar Yapan Mısır Koçankurdu (Sesamia Nonagrioides Lef.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Ve Mısırkurdu (Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbn.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)’Nun Mücadelesine Esas Olabilecek Biyolojik Kriterlerin Araştırılması. Türkiye Iı. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri 28-31 Ocak 1992, Adana, Pp. 501- 512. (in turkish)

[5] Kayapınar, A. Ve Kornoşor, S., 1998. Çukurova Bölgesi’nde Mısır Koçankurdu’nun Mevsimsel Çıkışı Ve Populasyon Gelişmesi. Proceedings of A Symposium On Corn Borers And Control Measures, 1-3 November Adana, 87-91. (in turkish)

[6] Castanera, P. 1986. Plagas Del Maíz. Iv Jornadas Técnicas Sobre El Maíz, Líérida. Plagas:1-24. Ministerio De Agricultura Pesca Y Alimentación, Madrid.

[7] Koç, N. ve Tüsüz, M.A., 1995. Mısır Sap Ve Koçan Kurtlarına Dayanıklı Çeşit Geliştirmede Zararlı Biyo-Ekolojisinin Araştırılması Ve Suni Aşılama Yapılacak Bitki Büyüme Devresinin Tespiti, Sonuç Raporu, Akdeniz Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü, Antalya. (in turkish)

[8] Ortega, A., Vasal S.K., Mihm J., And Hersheand C., 1980. Breeding For Insect Resistance In Maize. P.372-419. In F.G. Maxwell And P.R. Jennings (Ed) Breeding Plants Resistance To Insects. John Wiley And Sons.Ins. New York

[9] Awadallah, W.H., 1983. The Development And Use Of Varietal Resistance And Other Non-Chemical Control Methods To Reduce Yield Losses Due To Stalk Borers In Maize. Final Report April 1977 To April 1983, 188 Pp., Project Fg-Rg-170, Cairo, Egypt. [10] Guthherie W.D. and Bary, B.D. 1987. Methodologies Used For Screening And Determining Resistance In Maize To The European Corn Borer. In: Proceeding Of The International Symposium On Methodologies For Developing Host Plant Rezistance To Maize İnsects, Cimmyt, Mexico, Pp: 290-302.

[11] Mihm, J.A., 1987. Evaluating Maize For Resistance To Tropical Stem Borers, Arrmyworms And Earworms. İn: Proc. Of The International Symposium On Methodoligies For Developing Host Plant Rezistance To Maize Insects, Cimmyt, Mexio, Pp: 109-129.

[12] Turkay, M.A., Korkut K.Z., Özkan H., Ülger A.C., Sertkaya E., Güllü M., Sarihan H., Uçak , A.B., Bolat A. 2011. Mısır Koçankurdu (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)’na Dayanıklı Çeşit Islahı. Tübitak 107O804 nolu proje sonuç raporu, Mayıs 2011 Tübitak/Ankara. (in turkish)

[13] Guthrie, W.D. 1979. Breeding For Resistance To Insect In Corn. In Biology And Breeding For Resistance To Arthropods And Pathogens In Agricultural Plants, Proc. Int. Short Course In Host Plant Resistance Edited By Harris M.K., Texas A&M University Collage Station, Texas, Pp.290-302.

[14] Bohn, M., Schulz, B., Kreps, R., Klein, D., Melchinger, A.E. 2000. Qtl Mapping For Resistance Against The European Corn Borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis H.) In Early Maturing European Dent Germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 101:907–917.

[15] Jampatong, C., Mcmullen, M.D., Barry, B.D., Darrah, L.L., Byrne, P.F., Kross, H. 2002. Quantitative Trait Loci For First And Second Generation European Corn Borer Resistance Derived From The Maize Inbred Mo47. Crop Sci 42:584–593

[16] Cardinal, A.J. And Lee, M. 2005. Genetic Relationships Between Resistance To Stalk-Tunneling By The European Corn Borer And Cell-Wall Components In Maize Population B739b52. Theor Appl Genet 111:1–7.

[17] Blake Gr, Hartge Kh. 1986. Bulk Density. In: Methods Of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical And Mineralogical Methods. (Ed: A. Klute) Agr. Monogr. 9. Asa And Sssa, Madison Wi. P. 363- 375

[18] Klute, A. 1986. Water Retention: In: Klute, A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, Physical And Mineralogical Methods, 2nd Edition, Agronomy Monograph No.9, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wi. Pp. 635-653.

[19] Scott Hd. 2000. Soil–Plant–Water Relations. Soil Physics. Agricultural And Environmental Applications. Iowa State University, 2121 South State Avenue, Ames, Iowa, Pp 322–355.

[20] Tuzuner, A., 1990. Soil and water analysis laboratory, T.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestryand Rural Affairs, General Directorate of Rural Services, Ankara.

1-7
2.

Effective Technical Competitive Analysis (TCA) in Program Management

Authors: Mylaudy Dr. S. Rajadurai, S. Shibu Anand, B. Suresh Kumar

Abstract- This paper presents a normalized mathematical model that determines the basic factors influencing domestic solar water heating systems, and in specific, discusses the optimum design time as well as the optimum tilt angle of the solar collector, bearing in mind the contribution of the energy obtained to meet the targeted load. The paper considers the required thermal capacity that should be provided by the solar collector. The study is thoroughly based on normalized mathematical parameters. In the case of 100% solar contribution, for heated water temperature of 45oC and consumption of 100 liters/Person per day for a given house sited at Tripoli city, 32.68°N latitude, the optimum design time is the month of December, the optimum tilt angle is 75°, and the solar collector area, fulfilling the following specifications: glazed type, Fr. (τα) = 0.58, a (d Fr UL=4.0(W/m2 . oC), is 2.83 m2 . The results designate an optimum tilt angle of 50°, which is the same angle obtained by the traditional famous technique, and solar collector area of 1.6 m 2 if up to 80% of demand is to be covered by solar energy. Results obtained by RETScreen commercial computer package are compared and validated.

Keywords- Domestic Water Heating Systems, Optimum Tilt Angle, Solar Fraction, Solar Collector Area, Capacity Of Storage Unit.

References-

[1] Agha, k. R. and Sbita, M. N., “On the sizing Parameters of Alone Solar Energy Systems”, Journal of Applied Energy, Vol. 65, 2000, PP. 73-84.

[2] Khasawneh, Q. A., Damrab, Q. A., and Salmanb, O. H. B., Determining the Optimum Tilt Angle for Solar Applications in Northern Jordan, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Volume 9 Number 3, June-2015, Pages 187 – 193.

[3] Zang, H., Wei, M. G. Z., and Sun, G., Determination of the Optimal Tilt Angle of Solar Collectors for Different Climates of China, Journal Of Sustainability, 11 July 2016.

[4] Wessley, J. J. G., Narciss Starbell, R., and Sandhya, S., Modelling of Optimal Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors Across Eight Indian Cities, International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2017.

[5] Baccoli, R., Mastino, C.C., Innamorati, R., Serra, L., Curreli, S., Ghiani, E., Ricciu, R., and Marini, M., A mathematical model of a solar collector augmented by a flat plate above reflector: Optimum inclination of collector and reflector, Elsevier Ltd., 2015.

[6] Wang, S., and Hong, B., Optimum Design of Tilt Angle and Horizontal Direction of Solar Collectors under Obstacle’s Shadow for Building Applications, Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, 2015, 3, 60-67.

[7] Beckman W. A., Klein S. A., and Duffie J. A., A design procedure for solar heating systems, Solar Energy, 1976; 18:113.

[8] Klein S. A. and Beckman W. A., A general design method for closed-loop solar energy systems, Solar Energy, 1979; 22:269.

[9] Mean monthly solar radiation measurements during the period of 1981-1984, information department, Center for Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli, Libya.

[10] Mean monthly temperature data during the period of 1945-1984, meteorological department, international Report, Tripoli, Libya.

[11] Hsieh, J. S., Solar Energy Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1986).

[12] Elwani, A. B., “On Sizing The Main Components Of Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems Under Different Meteorological And Load Conditions”, M. Sc. Thesis, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, University Of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya, 2013.

[13] RETScreen energy model, Solar Water Heating Project, www.retscreen .com

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3.

Solar Photovoltaic Module Performance Characterization using Single Diode Modeling

Authors: Javed K. Sayyad, Paresh S. Nasikkar

Abstract- This paper is a part of a research project aiming at developing and validating a computational code for multiobjective thermal building performance optimization by linking an evolutionary algorithm and a building simulation software in a powerful cluster. EnergyPlus simulation software/engine with SketchUp and OpenStudio software packages are employed. A common style case study as a typical residential building in Libya is studied. Single and combined energy efficiency measures were applied. These include, upgrading the specifications of building envelope and/or lights, installation of solar water heater and/or photovoltaic solar panels. In each scenario, the data and advantages are evaluated, analyzed and discussed. The base style outcomes lead to an electricity demand of 163.6 kWh/m2 /year, where the space cooling load is devoted to be 4 times heating load, with the priority is to insulate roofs than walls. Improving the envelope thermal behavior reduces the energy consumption by 14.0 %. Lights represents a quarter of the total energy demand while upgrading interior lights leads to an annual saving of 7.7 %. Water heating strongly shares in the presence of peak demands for 9 months. Considering solar water heaters, reduces the required annual demand by more than 12 %. Using Photovoltaic Solar Panels, reduces the annual consumption by 19.3 %. Combining these energy efficiency practices results in savings of more than 54%, corresponding to a total energy reduction of 88.4 Wh/m2 /year. For saving of 54% in residential buildings will result in a reduction of 19% of the national demand. This represents a very encouraging indicator for achieving energy and environmental sustainability, that overcomes the electricity generation crisis in many similar case countries.

Keywords- Residential Buildings, Energy Loads, Energy Efficiency Measures, EnergyPlus, Electricity crisis.

References-

[1] General Electricity Company of Libya, Annual Report: Statistics 2012, Tripoli (2012).

[2] Agha K and others. The potential contribution of solar energy in the household water heating: Technical and economic feasibility (in Arabic language). Tripoli: 2013.

[3] KATHRYN B. JANDA and JOHN F. Busch, “WORLDWIDE STATUS OF ENERGY STANDARDS FOR BUILDINGS”, Energy, Vol. 19, No. I, pp. 27 – 44 (1994).

[4] L. De Boecka,b, A. Audenaertc , L. De Mesmaekerd, “Improving the energy performance of residential buildings: a literature review “, KU Leuven - campus Brussels (HUBrussel), Center for Information Management, Modeling and Simulation, Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels, Belgium (2013).

[5] Janet L. Reyna1 & Mikhail V. Chester, “Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change”, Nature Communication (2017) DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14916 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications

[6] Transition to Sustainable Buildings Strategies and Opportunities to 2050, IEA (2013)

[7] Global Energy Assessment Writing Team.. Global Energy Assessment: Toward a Sustainable Future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511793677 (2012).

[8] AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES – Chapter 5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies, US Department of Energy, September 2015.

[9] Jaber JO. Prospects of energy savings in residential space heating. Energy and Buildings 2002;34:311–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(01)00118-9.

[10] Alghoul SK, Gwesha AO, Naas AM. The Effect of Electricity Price on Saving Energy Transmitted from External Building Walls. Energy Research Journal 2016. doi:10.3844/erjsp.2016.

[11] Gwesha A, Nass A, Alghoul S. Determination of optimum insulation thickness of external walls in three Libyan cities on the basis of economic analysis of space heating (in Arabic). Journal of Engineering Research 2016;21:1–14.

[12] Alghoul SK, Hatab AM. Building Energy Efficiency : Optimization of Building Envelope Using Grey-Based Taguchi. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology 2016;3:6192–7.

[13] Alghoul SK, Hatab AM. Optimizing heating and cooling energy consumption for lightweight concrete building wall. In: Strbac N, Zivkovic D, editors. 48th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Bor: University of Belgrade; 2016.

[14] Goodland RJA. The urgent transition to environmental sustainability. Tripoli: The Environment General Authority; 2013.

[15] El-Darwish I, Gomaa M. Retrofitting strategy for building envelopes to achieve energy efficiency. Alexandria Engineering Journal 2017;56:579–89. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.011.

[16] Chedid RB, Ghajar RF. Assessment of energy efficiency options in the building sector of Lebanon. Energy Policy 2004;32:647–55. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00328-2.

[17] Yang Y, Li B, Yao R. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings. Energy Policy 2010;38:7687–97. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.08.018.

[18] Brounen D, Kok N, Quigley JM. Residential Energy Use and Conservation: Economics and Demographics. European Economic Review 2011:1–29.

[19] Al-Shaalan AM, Ahmed W, Alohaly A., “Design Guidelines for Buildings in Saudi Arabia Considering Energy Conservation Requirements”, Applied Mechanics and Materials 2014;548– 549:1601–1606. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.548- 549.1601.

[20] Alghoul SK, Gwesha AO, Naas AM. The Effect of Electricity Price on Saving Energy Transmitted from External Building Walls. Energy Research Journal 2016;7:1–9.

[21] Alghoul S. K., H. G. Rijabo, and M. E. Mashena, “Energy consumption in buildings: A correlation for the influence of window to wall ratio and window orientation in Tripoli, Libya,” Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 11, pp. 82–86, 2017.

[22] California’s Existing Buildings Energy Efficiency Action Plan, California Energy Commission, September 2015.

[23] Arik Levinson, “HOW MUCH ENERGY DO BUILDING ENERGY CODES REALLY SAVE? EVIDENCE FROM CALIFORNIA”, American Economic Review 2016, 106(10): 2867– 2894 http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.20150102

[24] Hanan M. Taleb, Steve Sharples, “Developing sustainable residential buildings in Saudi Arabia: A case study”, Applied Energy 88 (2011) 383–391.

[25] Alaa Alaidroos, Moncef Krarti, “Optimal design of residential building envelope systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia”, Energy and Buildings 86 (2015) 104– 117. [26] Home Energy Guide, California Energy Commission (2011).

[27] B. Polly and others, “A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages”, Building Technologies Program, US Department of Energy, April 2011.

[28] Marshall Hunt and others, “HVAC Energy Efficiency Maintenance Study”, CALMAC Study ID SCE0293.01, Davis Energy Group, 2010.

[29] Center for Solar Energy Research and Studies Team, Field Project on Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems, Center for Solar Energy Research and Studies, Tripoli-Libya, report in Arabic (2009).

[30] Alghoul SK. A Comparative Study of Energy Consumption for Residential HVAC Systems Using EnergyPlus. American Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering 2017;2:98–103. doi:10.11648/j.ajmie.20170202.16.

[31] Hendron R, Anderson R, Christensen C, Eastment M, Reeves P. Development of an Energy Savings Benchmark for All Residential End-Uses. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2004.

[32] World Climate and Temperature. Tripoli Climate & Temperature n.d. http://www.tripoli-libya.climatemps.com/ temperatures. php. (accessed February 19, 2018).

[33] M. Aljannan, Y. Taleb, A. Zgalei, and S. Alghoul, “Estimation of energy consumption in residential buildings using simplified and simulation methods,” International Journal of Engineering papers, vol. 1, no. 2, (2016).

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4.

E-Commerce: Foundation, Obstacles and International Development

Authors: Abouzar Sadeghzadeh, Dr. Maryam Haghshenas

Abstract– This study is aimed to evaluate the bio removal potential for nickel (II) as a toxic heavy metal for human and plant. So, The ability of Nickel uptake by metal-resistant five different types of bacterial species well identified and had previously work heavy metal, copper and zinc bio removal as Bacillus megaterium EMCC 1013, Rhizobium rhizogenes EMCC1743, Rhizobium leguminosarum EMCC1130, Azotobacter vinelandii and Nocardiopsis Dassenvillei were evaluated their potential activity in bio removal of nickel (II). Our results showed that five bacterial species have great variation potential for nickel (II) bio removal. Bacillus megaterium EMCC has the highest potential for bio removal of nickel 10 ml of 600ppm with 26.67 % removal after 24 h with inoculum size 0.1 x 10 29 Cu and incubation temperature 30 °C at PH 7 and energy source glucose and ammonium oxalate as carbon and nitrogen source. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bio removal capacity of nickel as a toxic heavy metal by five different bacterial species to use them in further study in removal of nickel (II) from electroplating waste water. In addition Bacillus megaterium EMCC as the most potent nickel (II) resistant microorganisms will very useful in biotechnology for the remediation of metal contaminated environments with nickel and can also be used in the construction of biomarkers for the detection of nickel (II) ions.

Key words– Bioremoval, Bacillus megaterium, waste industry, Nickel

References-

[1] Hong, Y. C., Azad, H. R., & Cooksey, D. A. (1996). A chromosomal locus required for copper resistance, competitivefitness and cytochrome c biogenesis in Pseudomonas f luorescens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 7315–7320

[2] Nriagu, J. O., & Pacyna, J. M. (1988). Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature, 333, 134–141.

[3] Cheng, S. (2003). Heavy metals in plants and phyoremediation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 10, 335–340

[4] Siloniz, M., Balsolobre, C., Valderrama, M., & Peinado, J. (2002). Feasibility of copper uptake by the yeast Pichia guilliermondii isolated form sewage sludge. Research in Microbiology, 153, 173–180.

[5] Rehman, A., Farooq, H., & Hasnain, S. (2008). Biosorption of copper by yeast, Loddermyces elongisporus, isolated from industrial effluents: Its potential use in wastewater treatment. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 48, 195–201

[6] Eccles, H. (1995). Removal of heavy metals from effluents streams—Why select a biological process? International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 35, 5– 16.

[7] Shakoori, A. R., & Qureshi, F. (2000). Cadmium resistant bacteria from industrial effluents and their role in environmental clean-up. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 32, 165–172

[8] Feng, D., & Aldrich, C. (2004). Adsorption of heavy metals by biomaterials derived from the marine alga Ecklonia maxima. Hydrometallurgy, 73, 1–10.

[9] Shakoori, A. R., Rehman, A., & Haq, R. U. (2004). Multiple metal resistance in the ciliate protozoan, Vorticella microstoma, isolated from industrial effluents and its potential in bioremediation of toxic wastes. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 72, 1046–1051.

[10] Mergeay, M, Houba, C, Gerits, J (1978) Extrachromosomal inheritance controlling resistance to cadmium, cobalt, copper, and zinc ions: evidence from curing in a Pseudomonas. Arch Int Physiol Biochim 86: 440–441

[11] Stoppel, T, Schlegel, HG (1989) Nickel and cobalt resistance of various bacteria isolated from soil and highly polluted domestic and industrial wastes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 62: 315–328

[12] M.A.El-Badry, T.A. Elbarbary , I.A. Ibrahim , Y. M. Abdel-Fatah 2016. Azotobacter vinelandii Evaluation and Optimization of Abu Tartur Egyptian Phosphate Ore Dissolution. Saudi J. Pathol. Microbiol.1 (2016) 80-93

[13] T.A. Elbarbary, M.A.El-Badry, , I.A. Ibrahim , S.A. Abd EL-Halim, c , H.M. Sharada , Y. M. Abdel-Fatah, Studies on The Efficiency of Dissolution of Phosphate Content of Abu Tartur Phosphate Ore using Nocardiopsis Dassenvillei International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology 3(2015) 71-93

[14] Virender S, Chauhan PK, Kanta R: Isolation and characterization of pseudomonas resistant to heavy metals contaminants. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010, 3:164–167

[15] Keramati P, Hoodaji M, Tahmourespour A: Multimetal resistance study of bacteria highly resistant to Mercury isolated from dental clinic effluent. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011, 5:831–837

[16] Toroglu S, Dıncer S: Heavy metal resistances of Enterobacteriaceae from Aksu River (Turkey) polluted with different sources. Asian J Chem 2009, 21(1):411– 420

[17] Hernandz B, Dorian A: Zinc and lead biosorption by Delftia tsuruhatensis: a bacterial strain resistant to metals isolated from mine tailings. J water Resource Protec 2012, 4:1–11

[18] Alboghobeish, H., Tahmourespour, A. and Doudi M. 2014: The study of Nickel Resistant Bacteria (NiRB) isolated from wastewaters polluted with different industrial sources. Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering 2014 12:44

[19] Stanley HO, Ihennacho CM, Stanley CN (2017) Bioremoval of Heavy Metals from Effluent of Port Harcourt Refinery Using Pluerotus ostreatus. J Pet Environ Biotechnol 7: 324

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5.

Design of Ship Dynamic Positioning Controller Based on Dynamic Matrix Predictive Control

Authors: Werneld Egno Ngongi, Du Jialu, Fortunata Kakwaya, Erick Phares Massami, Eliamin Kassembe

Abstract— In this work, a comparison was carried out between two thin film hydrogen detector designs depend on the Palladium and Zinc Oxide coated on glass thin film that adept to detect hydrogen gas. Four samples have been prepared; two of them prepared from palladium metal and two other samples prepared from Zinc Oxide. Palladium and Zinc Oxide thin films were prepared on glass substrates. The films were constructed by vaporization deposition technique, which subjects to three tests. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to check the crystalline structure of the samples, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) to study the surface flatness of samples, and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to take images of surface topography of samples. A polymer test chamber was fabricated to contain the sample. The approach of the manufacture the sensor based on passing the gas to the chamber, which adsorbs on the sample (Palladium, or Zinc Oxide), and the light is transmitted through the sample to the CCS spectrometer to measure and recorded the signal using computer. Six readings were recorded for each sample test under pressures of -0.6, -0.5, -0.4, -0.3, -0.2 and -0.1 bar. Frequencies against transmitted light intensity were then plotted for each measurement. From the data recorded. Results showed that, by increase of concentration of hydrogen gas in the test chamber, the sensitivity increase linearly as the gas concentration increase. This result means that, Zinc Oxide and Palladium thin film samples successfully detect hydrogen gas.

Keywords— Detector, Palladium, Semiconductor, Spectrometer, Thin-Film, Zinc Oxide.

References-

[1] A. Sanger, A. Kumar, A. Kumar, R. Chandra, Highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensor using sputtered grown Pd decorated MnO2 nanowalls, Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 234 (2016) 8–14, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb. 2016.04.152.

[2] Al bashir Zomrawi, A. M. Awadelgied, S. F. Abdalah, K. Al Naimee, ―Palladium Film Chemical Sensor‖, International Journal of Innovation in Science and MathematicsVolume 2, Issue 2, ISSN (Online): 2347–9051.

[3] Dr.Albashir Zomrawi, Dr. A. M. Awadelgied, Dr. S. F. Abdalah and K. Al Naimee ―Development of Hydrogen Zinc Oxide Film Sensor‖, International Journal of Trend in Research and Development, Volume 4(2), ISSN: 2394-9333 Mar-Apr 2017

[4] Nor Akmar Mohd Yahya , Mohd Rashid Yusof Hamid , Siti Azlida Ibrahim, , Boon Hoong Ong , Norizah Abdul Rahman , Ahmad Rifqi Md Zain , Mohd Adzir Mahdi , Mohd Hanif Yaacob, ―H2 sensor based on tapered optical fiber coated with MnO2 nanostructures‖ Sensors and Actuators B 246 (2017) 421–427.

[5] Ram B. Gupta. ―Hydrogen Fuel Production, Transport, and Storage‖. Edited by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC-2009 .

[6] Thomas, R.C. and Hughes, R.C., ―Sensors for Detecting Molecular Hydrogen Based on Pd Metal Alloys‖, Journal of Electrochemical Society, 144(9), 3245, 1997.

[7] V.E. Bochenkov, G.B. Sergeev, Sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of gas-sensitive metal-oxide, Nanostructures 3 (2010) 31–52.

[8] Spector, A. Z. 1989. Achieving application requirements. In Distributed Systems, S. Mullende

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6.

Hydrological Determination of Turbomachinery Potential in Current

Author: Levent Yilmaz

Abstract: Utilization of effective data transfer capacities plays an imperative job on SMS messages in versatile correspondences. At the same time securing SMS information is likewise a critical one. In the present digital world huge volumes of information is transferring between end users as SMS (Short Message Service) through mobile devices. Each SMS data mostly is comprised of simple text characters which are sent in the form of plain text. Mobile devices also place a limit on each SMS up to 160 characters. SMS data sent by subscriber A is stored at service center of service provider before it is delivered to the subscriber B. To accomplish the desired task cryptography mechanism is implemented which gives better security on SMS data. I have first implemented FECTSD [22] algorithm and found that author did not use any compression technique and the algorithm is easy to break or guess the keyword as avalanche effect of an algorithm is very low. The aim of this research work is to build up a powerful and secure cryptography algorithm against various sorts of attacks. The strength and security in expanded by Generation of Random number by adding ASCII value of key character followed by modulo of key length. Appropriately an effective plan is created here that are having better execution time and avalanche Effect against a broad assortment of assaults. The outcomes appear that our proposed security algorithm has less complexity as compare to A Fast Encryption and compression technique on SMS data (FECTSD) (2018)

Keywords - Encryption, decryption, plain text, cipher text, symmetric key and Block cipher.

References-

[1] Sophia Yakoubov, Vijay Gadepally, Nabil Schear, Emily Shen, and Arkady Yerukhimovich, A survey of cryptographic approaches to securing big-data analytics in the cloud,” in 2014 IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC), pp. l–6, Year: 2014.

[2] Ali Makki Sagheer, Ayoob Abdulmunem, Abdul hameed, and Mohammed Adeeb AbdulJabbar, “SMS Security for Smartphone,” in 2013 Sixth International Conference on Developments in eSystems Engineering, Year: 2013, pp. 281–285.

[3] Ayadi Wael and Seddik Hassene, “A new SMS encryption algorithm based on hyper chaotic system,” in 2016 Second International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Signal and Image Processing (ATSIP), Year: 2016, pp. 57–62.

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7.

Spectrometric Determination of Selected Heavy Metals in Plant Tissues in Kisii County

Authors: Isaboke Peter Abel, Njagi Njomo, John Onam Onyatta

Abstract- Heavy metals are non-biodegradable andtherefore they remain in ecological systems and in the foodchain indefinitely, exposing top-level predators to very highlevels of pollution. Elevated levels of heavy metals in naturalenvironmentmay have a detrimental effect on both humanhealth and the environment.Apart from the direct impact onhealthorenvironmentalproblems,waterorsoilcontamination can cause considerable economic and financialdamage.Plant samples were air dried and gently groundtopass through a 2 mm sieve andhomogenized and stored foranalysis. Statistical analysiswasconducted onthe data todetermine the mean and Pearson correlation. According to theanalysis of spectrometrictechnique,the concentrations of theheavymetals in the selected sites werebelow therecommended levels. The determination of levels of lead, zinc,manganese and cadmium in plant tissues inKisii County weretobe used to sensitize the general population of Kisii Countyon heavy metal health effects and the importance ofenvironmental conservation. The study wasalsotoinform theauthorities in environment management on the level of heavymetal pollution in the County hence providing a reference forfuture studies on the same.

References-

[1] Audu A . A, Lawal A . O (2006). Variation in metal contents of plants in vegetable garden sites in Kano Metropolis. J. Appl.sci.Environ. Manage. 10 (2): 105 - 109.

[2] Bose, B. and Hemantaranjan, A. (2005). Developments in physical, biological and molecular biology of plants. New Delhi, India: New India Publishing agen cy. Pp 105 .

[3] Castro - Gonzalez, M.I. $ Mendez - Armenta, M. (2008). Heavy Metals: Implications associated to fish consumption. Environmental Toxicology $ Pharmacology, 26 , 263 - 271 .

[4] Draghici, C; Coman, G; Jelescu, C; Dima, C. $ Chirila, E. (2010). Heavy metals de termination in environment and biological samples, In: Environmental heavy metal pollution and effects on child mental development - Risk Assessment and Prevention Strategies, NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Sofia, Bulgaria, 28 April - 1 May 2010.

[5] Fong, F,; Seng, C,; Azan, A. and Tahi, M. (2008). Possible source and pattern distribution of heavy metals Content in Urban soil at Kuala Terengganu Town Centre. The Malaysian journal of Analytical Science; 12 : 455 - 467.

[6] Masood, S. B, Kamran, S. and Babar E, B. (2005 ). Hazardous effects of sewage water on the environment focus on heavy metals and chemical composition of soil and vegetables: Institute of food science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and Abdul Aziz Management of Environmen tal Quality: An International Journal . Pp 4.

[7] Shrivastav, R. (2001). Atmospheric heavy metal pollution, development of chronological records and geological monitoring. Accessed from www.ias.ac.in

[8] Vieira, C, Morais, S, Ramos, S, Delerue - Matos, C. $ Oliveira, M.B.P.P.(2011). Mercury, Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic levels in three Pelagic Fish species from the Atlantic Ocean : Intra - and Inter - Specific Variability and Human Health risks for Consumption. Food $ Chemical Toxicology, 49, 923 - 9 33

 

 

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