S.No.

Volume 7, Issue 10, October 2018

1.

Experimental Assessment of Methane Emission in Open Dump Site of MSW

Authors: Chandra Kumar Patel, Alok Agrawal

Abstract- Every day, Jabalpur generates approximately 450 tonnes of waste. A major fraction (45%) of total waste is organic or wet waste, which degrades in the natural environment. This study is focused on the estimation of the carbon footprint of household waste generated in Jabalpur city. Open dumping and landfilling are the prevalent solid waste disposal practices in Jabalpur. Methane emission potential at these sites was estimated by two methods. Results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, and closed flux box technique were compared. This study is primarily focused on the estimation of total methane emission potential from waste disposal sites in Jabalpur city if it goes to landfill instead of open dumping and its effect on Jabalpur climatic changes. The results from two estimation methods, i.e. theoretical method and flux box experimental method and information collect waste generation rate and total disposed waste amounts at Kathonda disposal sites in Jabalpur.

Keywords- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Waste generation rate

References- [1] S. Singhal and S. Pandey, “Solid Waste Management of India, Status and Future Direction”, TERI Information monitor on Environment Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2001, pp. 1-4.

[2] CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board), Management of Municipal Solid Wastes, 2005. Details available at , last accessed on 5 July 2006.

[3] M.P.Joshi, S.B.Patil, K. Mourya, “Solid Waste Management on Dumping Ground in Mumbai Region – A Study” International conference on Green Computing and Technology, 2013.

[4] CPCB-NEERI, Survey on Million Plus Cities in India (2004-2005).

[5] A. V. Shekdar, “A Strategy for the Development of Land-fill Gas Technology in India,” Waste Management and Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1997, pp. 256-266.

[6] A. K. Jha, C. Sharma, N. Singh, R. Ramesh, R. Purveja and P. K. Gupta, “Greenhouse Gas Emission from Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Mega-Cities: A Case Study of Chennai Landfill Sites” , Chemosphere, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2008, pp. 750-758. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.10.024.

[7] S. Gupta, N. Choudhary and B. J. Alappat, “Bioreactor landfill for MSW Disposal in Delhi”, Proceeding of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Chennai, 2007, pp. 474-481.

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2.

Analysis of Industrial Process in the Electronic Industry of Mexicali

Authors: Francisco Ramírez Moreno, Sebastián Velarde Córdova, Héctor Alejandro Peláez Molina, Homero Jaime Rodríguez Centeno, Sandra Luz Toledo Perea

Abstract- In the manufacturing processes of the electronics industry developed by electrical and electronic equipment and systems, there are variations that indicate the different types of causes that may manifest themselves. These changes in the operating specifications of industrial machinery can happen because electrical failures sometimes occur continuously or in certain daily, weekly and monthly periods. The analysis are carried out at this time mainly to know the operational performance (RO) of the equipment and systems of companies of the electronic turn. This generates imbalances in the planning activities in the programming of the different types of products that are manufactured and with it the decrease of manufactured units and in the majority of the times, economic losses occur. Being the city of Mexicali, a region of the northwest of Mexico where they are installed great amount of industrial plants of the electronic branch, a study with the objective of determining the main causes of the generation of electrical faults of the industrial machinery was developed. The most important tool used was the "ABC Graph" with the information obtained from the operation of the equipment and systems of an electronic branch company located in Mexicali, where it was observed that the RO was lower in the winter season. This occurred due to the deterioration of electrical connections and connectors of industrial equipment and systems due to the presence of atmospheric corrosion on their metal surfaces, which are mainly made of copper material. This electrochemical phenomenon occurs in interiors of the electronics industry, when the relative humidity (RH) and temperature levels are greater than 80% and 35 ° C combined with concentrations of sulfides that exceed air quality standards at certain times of the year. The study was developed in the period from 2016 to 2017.

Keywords- ABC graphics, manufacturing processes, electronic industry, operational performance, atmospheric corrosion

References-

[1] Gustavo López-Badilla, Catalina González-Hernández, Antonio Valdez-Ceballos; ´´Análisis de corrosión en MEM de la industria electrónica en ambientes árido y marino del noroeste de México´´; Revista Científica, vol.15, núm. 3, pp. 145-150, julio-septiembre; ISSN 1665-0654, ESIME Instituto Politécnico Nacional MÉXICO, 2011.

[2] López Badilla, Gustavo; Tiznado Vázquez, Hugo; Soto Herrera, Gerardo; De la Cruz Hernández, Wencel; Valdez Salas, Benjamín; Schorr Wiener, Miguel; Zlatev, Roumen; ´´Corrosión de dispositivos electrónicos por contaminantes atmosféricos en interiores de plantas industriales de ambientes áridos y marinos´´; Nova Scientia, vol. 3, núm. 5, noviembre-abril, pp. 11-28; Universidad de La Salle; 2010.

[3] López-Badilla, Gustavo; Tiznado-Vázquez, Hugo; Soto-Herrera, Gerardo; ´´Análisis de EEA en la corrosión de cobre utilizado en la industria electrónica de ambientes áridos y marinos´´; Nova Scientia, vol. 4, núm. 7, noviembre-abril, pp. 1-16; Universidad de La Salle; 2011.

[4] Gustavo López Badilla; ´´Análisis de la Corrosión en Equipos Industriales Electrónicos´´, Periodice industrial Siglo XXI; Mexicali, B.C.

[5] B.G. Lopez, S.B. Valdez, K. R. Zlatev, P.J, Flores, B.M. Carrillo and W. M. Schorr; Corrosion of metals at indoor conditions in the electronics manufacturing industry; AntiCorrosion Methods and Materials; 2007.

[6] Chongchen Xu (2003);Corrosion in Microelectronics; Partial Filfillment of MatE 234.

[7] L. Veleva, B. Valdez, G. Lopez, L. Vargas and J. Flores; Atmospheric corrosion of electro-electronics metals in urban desert simulated indoor environment; Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology; 2008.

[8] López Badilla Gustavo; Tesis de Doctorado; Caracterización de la corrosión en materiales metálicos de la industria electrónica en Mexicali, B.C., 2008.

[9] Cartier, E N., "El costo basado en actividades y la teoría del costo", No. 11; 2004.

[10] Drucker, P., ´´La administración en una época de grandes cambios con los Gráficos ABC", Editorial sudamericana; 2003.

[11] Kaplan, R. S. & Cooper, R.; "Gráficos ABC: costo y efecto"; Editorial Gestión; 2000.

[12] Shank John & Govindarajan V. ;"La gerencia estratégica de costos"; Grupo Editorial Norma; 2005.

[13] Shank & Govindarajan V.; "Graficos ABC: el alto costo de producir"; Ed. Trillas, 2003.

[14] Moncmanova A.; Environmental Deterioration of Materials, WITPress, pp 108-112; 2007.

[15] K. Asami, M. Kikuchi and K. Hashimoto (1997); An auger electron spectroscopic study of

[16] the corrosion behavior of an amorphous Zr40Cu60 alloy; Corrosion Science; Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 95-106; 1997.

[17] Y.Van Ingelgem, I.Vandendael, J.Vereecken, A.Hubin; Study of copper corrosion

[18] products formed during localized corrosion using field emission Auger electron spectroscopy, Surface and Interface Analysis, Volume 40 Issue 3-4, pp 273 – 276; 2003.

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3.

New Analysis Methodology to Evaluate the Environmental Factors and the Deterioration of Metallic Surfaces in the Electronics Industry

Authors: Francisco Ramírez Moreno, Sebastián Velarde Córdova, Héctor Alejandro Peláez Molina, Homero Jaime Rodríguez Centeno

Abstract-- Based on the use of industrial and computing engineering tools, a new method was developed with a VEGAM matrix for the rapid and effective detection of the effects of the environment (climate and air pollution) on equipment and machines used in the electronics industry. This was done with a staff developed by experts from the National Technological Institute based in the Technological Institute of Mexicali, obtaining an efficiency of 95% in its application in the electronic industry of the city of Mexicali.

Keywords- Methodology, education, skills, quality, chemistry, environmental, industry, electronics.

References-

[1] Dortisky J., Michael l., Baker, A. (2013). ´´The early history of industrial processes and its relation with the educational activities´´. Journal of Mathematical and Statistics Industry; Vol. 3; No. 2; pp. 56-70.

[2] Bermúdez, C., Gómez, E., Serrano, L. y Contreras, J. L. (2012). ´´Simulation of industrial processes´´. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education; Vol. 4; No. 1; pp. 23-35.

[3] Onold, C. y Pollatsek, A. (2014). ´´Conceptualizing of methodologies used in the industrial processes´´; International Journal of Industry; Vol. 5; No. 2; pp. 19-32.

[4] Ronald T., George A., Johnson G. (2015).´´Statistical tools used in the manufacturing processes´´; International Methods and Statistics References´´; Vol. 3; No. 2; pp. 22- 38.

[5] B.G. Lopez, S.B. Valdez, K. R. Zlatev, P.J, Flores, B.M. Carrillo and W. M. Schorr (2007); ´´Corrosion of metals at indoor conditions in the electronics manufacturing industry´´; AntiCorrosion Methods and Materials; Vol. 4; No. 2; pp. 35-46.

[6] López-Badilla, G. et al. Revista Electrónica Nova Scientia, Nº 5 Vol. 3 (1), 2010. pp: 11 - 28 - 27

[7] López Badilla G, Valdez Salas B, Schorr Wiener M, Rosas GN, Tiznado VH, Soto HG. (2010. ´´Infuence of climate factors on copper corrosion in electronic equipment and devices´´; AntiCorrosion Methods and Materials; Vol. 57; No. 3; pp. 148-152.

[8] López Badilla G, Tiznado VH, Soto HG, De la Cruz W, Valdez Salas B, Schorr Wiener M, Koytchev Zlatev R. (2010). ´´Corrosión de dispositivos electrónicos por contaminación atmosférica en interiores de plantas de ambientes áridos y marinos´´; Revista Nova Scientia; Vol. 5; No. 3; pp. 11- 28.

[9] López Badilla G, Valdez Salas B, Schorr Wiener M, Zlatev R., Tiznado VH, Soto HG, De la Cruz W. )2011). ´´AES in corrosion of electronic devices in arid in marine environments´´; AntiCorrosion Methods and Materials; Vol. 6; No. 8; pp. 331-336.

[10] Walsh G, Azarm S, Balachandran B, Magrab EB, Herold K, Duncan J. (2010). ´´Engineers Guide to MATLAB´´; Prentice Hall Ed.

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4.

Effect of Atmospheric Contamination in the Application of Pigments in the Food Industry of Mexicali

Authors: Sebastián Velarde Córdova, Francisco Ramírez Moreno, Héctor Alejandro Peláez Molina, Homero Jaime Rodríguez Centeno

Abstract- The use of pigments in the food industry has been of great importance in the last thirty years, to obtain better benefits in the process of commercialization of food products. The pigments are developed for a large amount of food, based on characteristics of the application methods. In addition, climatic conditions are considered in the storage and manufacturing processes, as well as the types of food and packaging that identify them. This is done with the aim of obtaining a good appearance, and being an attractive product for food consumers. Sometimes the pigments do not have good adherence and based on that, a study is carried out on pigments that lost their coloring properties quickly, as well as the foods in which they adhered. Correlations of air pollution were developed, observing the effect of relative humidity (RH) levels and temperatures higher than 80% and 40 °C in the summer season, mainly in the months of July and August in the city of Mexicali. Food with defective levels of pigmentation must have been returned to manufacturing processes or be offered as food for pigs at a much lower cost than commercialized, causing economic losses for the company. The descriptive analysis was with the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) technique.

Keywords- Air pollution, pigments, food industry, MBE

References-

[1] AHRAE; Handbook; Heating, Ventilating and Ari-Conditioning; applications; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers Inc.; 1999.

[2] Asami K., Kikuchi M. and Hashimoto K.; An auger electron spectroscopic study of the corrosion behavior of an amorphous Zr40Cu60 alloy; Corrosion Science; Volume 39, Issue 1, January 1997, Pages 95-106; 1997.

[3] Avella M, De Vlieger JJ, Errico ME, Fischer S, Vacca P, Volpe MG.; Biodegradable starch/clay nanocomposite films for food packaging applications. Food Chem; 93(3):467–74; 2005.

[4] Brody A, Strupinsky ER, Kline LR. Odor removers. In: Brody A, Strupinsky ER, Kline LR, editors. Active packaging for food applications. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Company, Inc. p 107–17; 2001.

[5] Brody Aaron L., Bugusu Betty, Han Jung h., Sand Koelsh, Mchugh Tara H.; Innovative Food Packing Solutions; Journal of Food Science; 2008.

[6] Kirwan MJ, editors. Food packaging technology. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p 65–94; 2003.

[7] Canning Green Beans (CGB); Ecoprofile of Truitt Brothers Process; Institute for Environmental Research and Education; 2007.

[8] Cooksey K.; Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials. Food Addit Contam 22(10):980–7; 2005.

[9] Finkenzeller K.; RFID handbook: fundamentals and applications. 2nd ed. West Sussex, U.K.: JohnWiley & Sons Ltd. 452 p.; 2003.

[10] Lange J, Wyser Y.; Recent innovations in barrier technologies for plastic packaging—a review. Packag Technol Sci 16:149–58.; 2003.

[11] Lord JB.; The food industry in the United States. In: Brody AL, Lord J, editors. Developing new food products for a changing market place. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRS Press. p 1–23; 2008.

[12] Ray S, Easteal A, Quek SY, Chen XD; The potential use of polymer-clay nanocomposites in food packaging. Int J Food Eng 2(4):1–11; 2006

[13] Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", Institute of Packaging Professionals (IoPP), ISBN 1-930268-25-4; 2002.

[14] Walsh, Azarm, Balachandran, Magrab, Herold & Duncan Engineers Guide to MATLAB, Prentice Hall, 2010, ISBN-10: 0131991108.

[15] Weiss J, Takhistov P, McClements J.; Functional materials in food nanotechnology; J. Food Science; 71(9):R107–16; 2006.

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