S.No.

Volume 3, Issue 2, August 2014 (Title of Paper )

Page No.
1.

Effects of Illumination Conditions and Chromaticity Contrast on Reading Performance

Author: Chin-Chiuan Lin

Abstract—This study investigated the effects of illumination conditions (lighting color and illumination intensity) and chromaticity contrast on reading performance with TFT-LCD screens. Results indicated that the illumination intensity and background color had significant effects on reading performance in experiment 1. In experiment 2, only text color significantly affected reading performance. However, in general, reading performance was higher under white light, 500 lux, and text or background with blue color. According to the results, white light, 500 lux, and text or background with primal colors seemed to be the optimal conditions. If the yellow light is necessary, using blue as the text or background color of will provide better performance.

Keywords—Illumination conditions, Chromaticity contrast, Reading performance.

References-

[1] American National Standards Institute. 1983. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, American National Standard Practice for Industrial Lighting. ANSI/IES RP-7.

[2] Buchner, A. & Baumgartner, N. 2007. Text-background polarity affects performance irrespective of ambient illumination and colour contrast, Ergonomics, 50, 1036-1063.

[3] Charman, W. N. 1991. Limits on visual performance set by the eye’s optic and the retinal cone mosaic, in: J.J. Kulikowski, V. Walsh, I.J. Murray (Eds.), Vision and visual dysfunction, Limits of Vision, 5, 81-96.

[4] Chen, M.-T. & Lin, C.-C. 2004. Comparison of TFT-LCD and CRT on visual recognition and subjective preference, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 34, 167-174.

[5] Chung, H.-H. & Lu, S. 2003. Contrast-ratio analysis of sunlightreadable color LCDs for outdoor applications, Journal of the Society for Information Display, 11, 237-242.

[6] Hori, H. & Kondo, J. 1993. Contrast ratio for transmissive-type TFT-addressed LCDs under ambient-light, Journal of the Society for Information Display, 1, 325-327.

[7] Horikawa, M. 2001. Effect of visual display terminal height on the trapezius muscle hardness: Quantitative evaluation by a newly developed muscle hardness meter, Applied Ergonomics, 32, 473- 478.

[8] Huang, K.-C. & Chiu, T.-L. 2007. Visual search performance on an LCD monitor: effects of color combination of figure and line width of icon border, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104, 562-574.

[9] Huang, K.-C., Chen, C.-F. & Chiang, S,-Y. 2008. Icon flickering, flicker rate, and color combinations of an icon’s symbol/background in visual search performance, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 106, 117- 127. Isensee, S. H. & Bennett, C. A. 1983. The perception of flicker and glare on computer CRT, Display, 25, 177-184.

[10] Kubo, M., Uchi, T., Narutaki, Y., Shinomiya, T. & Ishii, Y. 2000. Development of “Advanced TFT-LCD” with good legibility under any ambient light intensity, Journal of the Society for Information Display, 8, 299-304.

[11] Langendijk, E. H. A. & Heynderickx, I. 2003. Optimal and acceptable color ranges of display primaries for mobile applications, Journal of the Society for Information Display, 11, 379-385.

[12] Lin, C.-C. 2005. Effects of screen luminance combination and text color on visual performance with TFT-LCD, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35, 229-235.

[13] Lin, C.-C. & Huang, K.-C. 2006. Effects of ambient illumination and screen luminance combination on the character identification performance of desktop TFT-LCD monitors, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 36, 211-218.

[14] Lin, C.-C. 2003. Effects of contrast ratio and text color on visual performance with TFT-LCD, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31, 65-72.

[15] Lin, C.-C. & Chen, M.-T. 2006. Effects of color combination on visual acuity and display quality with TFT-LCD, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, 23, 91-99.

[16] Lin, C.-C. & Huang, K.-C. 2009. Effects of color combination and ambient illumination on visual perception with TFT-LCD, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109, 1-19.

[17] Lin, C.-J., Feng, W.-Y., Chao, C.-J. & Tseng, F.-Y. 2008. Effects of VDT workstation lighting conditions on operator visual workload, Industrial Health, 46, 105-111.

[18] Mayr, S. & Buchner, A. 2010. After-effects of TFT-LCD display polarity and display colour on the detection of low-contrast objects, Ergonomics, 53, 914-925.

[19] Ostberg, O. 1980. Accommodation and visual fatigue in display work, in: E. Grandjean and E. Vigliani (Eds.), Ergonomics Aspects of Visual Display Terminal, Taylor and Franics, London.

[20] Sommerich, C. M., Joines, S. M. B. & Psihogios, J. P. 2001. Effects of computer monitor viewing angle and related factors on strain, performance, and preference outcomes, Human Factors, 43, 39-55.

[21] Tseng, F.-Y., Chao, C.-J., Feng, W.-Y. & Hwang, S.-L. 2010. Assessment of human color discrimination base on illuminant color, ambient illumination and screen background color for visual display terminal workers, Industrial Health, 48, 438-446.

[22] Yoshida, Y. & Yamamoto, Y. 2002. Color management of liquid crystal display placed under light environment, Electronics and Communications, in: Japan 86(7) 2003, Translated from Denshi Joho Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi, J85-A(7), 793-805.

1-6
2.

Power Consumption and Propagation Delay Analysis of Different Full Adder Topologies at 0.25 Micrometer Technology Node

Authors: Arpan Singh Rajput, Rajesh Parashar

Abstract— Full Adders are the most important components in digital design which not only perform addition operations, but also helpful in calculating several other functions such as subtraction, multiplication and division operations. Different types of adders are frequently essential in VLSI technology according to the requirement in processors to ASICs. In modern research we have found that Complementary Pass transistor Logic (CPL) is much more power-efficient than complementary CMOS. In this paper describes the power consumption and propagation delay of one-bit CMOS (Complementary MOSFET) full adder, CPL(Complementary Pass Transistor Logic) full adder, Domino logic full adder, and Transmission gate full adder designed using TANNER EDA, using 0.25 micrometer technology node with different CMOS logic design styles. It is reported that parameters like Dynamic and Static Power consumption and total propagation delay, for a particular aspect ratio it is less for Transmission gate Full adder.

Keywords- One-Bit CMOS full Adder, Domino Logic Full adder, CPL full adder, Transmission Gate Full adder, CMOS logic design styles.

References-

[1] Mahnoush Ruholamini, Amir Sahafi, Shima Mehrabi and Nooshin Dadkhahi Researches and Sciences Center of Hesarak, Tehran, Iran, “Low-Power and High-Performance 1-Bit CMOS Full-Adder Cell”, Journal of computer,vol.3, no. 2, Febuary 2008 .

[2] Reto Zimmermann and Wolfgang Fichtner, Fellow,IEEE “LowPower Logic Styles: CMOS Versus Pass-Transistor Logic”, IEEE journal of solid state circuits, vol. 32, no. 7, July 1997.

[3] Lixin Gao, “High Performance Complementary Pass Transistor Logic Full Adder”, International Conference on Electronic & Mechanical Engineering and Information Technology, Guangdong Jidian Polytechnic, China, 2011.

[4] Vahid Foroutan, Keivan Navi and Majid Haghparast, “A New Low Power Dynamic Full Adder Cell Based on Majority Function”, World Applied Sciences Journal 4 (1): 133-141, 2008 ISSN 1818- 4952, Islamic Azad University and Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

[5] Sun,S., and Tsui,P., “Limitation of CMOS supply-voltage scaling by MOSFET threshold voltage”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 30, pp. 947-949, 1995.

[6] Vivek Kumar, Vrinda Gupta, Rohit Maurya, “A Study and Analysis of High Speed Adders in Power-Constrained Environment”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-3, July 2012.

[7] Chandrakasan, A. Brodersen, “Low Power Digital Design”,Kluwer Academic Publishers, R., 1995.

[8] Reza Faghih Mirzaee, Mohammad Hossein Moaiyeri, Keivan Navi, “High Speed NP-CMOS and Multi- Output Dynamic Full Adder Cells”,International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 4:4 2010.

7-11
3.

Designing of RGB Color Detector

Authors: Tushar. K. Binnar, Darshan. D. Deoghare, Pratik. N. Patil, Vaishali. S. Kulkarni

Abstract— This paper describes the new technique used for the RGB color detection. The proposed technique illustrate the new methodology that can be used for the primary color detection and applications in various industries. It is color sensor that sense mainly red green and blue colors. This color sensor is designed by basic elements like primary color LED and light sensing device like LDR or photo diode. Basic principal of working are reflectivity of the light emitted by the LEDs from the object under test.

Keywords— RGB, LDR, LED, CdS, LCD

References-

[1] Rafael. C. Gonzalez and Richard. E. Gonzalez, Digital Image Processing, 3rd Ed.

[2] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Theory of Colors.

[3] Johannes Itten, The Elements of Color

[4] Linda Holtzschue, Understanding Color: An introduction for Designers.

[5] Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Rolin. D. Mckinlay,Danny Causey,Pic Microcontroller and Embedded System.

[6] Aloke. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Devices and Circuits.

12-15
4.

Studies in Waterproof Breathable Textiles

Authors: Dr. S. K.Chinta, Darbastwar Satish

Abstract- Textile products are particularly important for enhancing the comfort. Here, the main focus is on the discomfort due to perspiration. Waterproof or breathable fabrics resist liquid water passing through, but allow water vapour to pass through. Their ability to block out rain and snow while allowing vapour from sweat to evaporate leads to their use in rainwear, waterproof outdoor sports clothing, tents, and other applications. Coated fabric is ‘A textile fabric on which there has been formed in situ, on one or both surfaces, a layer or layers of adherent coating material’. Waterproof fabric completely prevents the penetration and absorption of liquid water&the term breathable implies that the fabric is actively ventilated. Water repellent fabrics are those which resist being wetted by water, water drops will roll off the fabric.

Keywords- waterproof, water repellent and water breathable.

References-

[1] Walter Fung.2002. Coated and laminated textiles. Woodhead Publishing Limited in association with The Textile Institute.

[2] Mukhopadhyay A. and Midha V.2008. A Review on Designing the Waterproof Breathable Fabrics Part I: Fundamental Principles and Designing Aspects of Breathable Fabrics.J. of Industrial Textiles.37 (Jan 2008), 225-262.

[3] Mukhopadhyay A. and Midha V.2008. A Review on Designing the Waterproof Breathable Fabrics Part II: Fundamental Principles and Designing Aspects of Breathable Fabrics.Journal of Industrial Textiles. 38, (July 2008), 17-41.

[4] Desai V.M. and Athawale V. D.Water.1995. Resistant Breathable Hydrophilic Polyurethane Coatings.Journal of Industrial Textile. 25, (July 1995), 39-46.

[5] De P., Sankhe M. D., and Chaudhari S. S. and Mathur M. R.2005. UV-resist, Water-repellent Breathable Fabric as Protective Textiles,Journal of Industrial Textiles.34, (April 2005), 209-222.

[6] Jeong, W.Y. and An, S.K. 2002. The Tailoring Performance and Mechanical Properties of Breathable Waterproof Fabrics. Sen-iGakkaishi, 58(6), (Jan 2002) 232–237.

[7] Karthikeyan L., Prakash S., Anandhakumar B., Balaselvam K. & Sakthivel S.2011. Development of Breathable Active Sports Wear. (Jan 2011).www.fibre2fashion.com.

[8] Fung, W. 2002. Products from Coated and Laminated Fabrics.Coated and Laminated Textiles. The Textile Institute, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, England.

[9] Langley, J.D., Hinkle, B.S., Carroll, T.R. and Vencill, C.T. 2004. Breathable Blood and Viral Barrier Fabric. Extracts from European Patent Applications. Part-1B: Primary Industry, Fixed Constructions, Mining, 20(35), EP 1448831. (2004) 3160–3161.

[10] Volkmar T. Bartels and Karl Heinz Umbach. 2002. Water Vapour Transport through Protective Textiles at Low Temperatures.Textiles Research Journal. 72, (OCT 2002), 899-905.

[11] Padleckiene I, Petrulis D., Vitalija, Rubežiene V., Abraitiene A. 2008. Breathability and Resistance to Water Penetration of Breathable-Coated Textiles after Cyclic Mechanical Treatments.Materials Science (MEDŽIAGOTYRA).15(1), (Oct 2008)69-74.

[12] Yiwei Du, Ke Li & Jianfei Zhang. 2009. Application of the Water and Oil Repellent Finishing Agent EX-910E in Polyester Nonwovens. Asian Social Science. 5(7), (July 2009), 168-173.

16-20
5.

A Numerical Approach with Variable Temperature Boundary Conditions over a Continuous Moving Plate

Authors: M. Dakshinamoorthy, P. Geetha, M. B. K. Moorthy

Abstract— A study of thermal boundary layer on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate, whose temperature varies as Axn , where A is a constant and x is measured from the leading edge of the plate has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated. The effect of various governing parameters, such as Prandtl number Pr, temperature exponent n and Schmidt number Sc which determine the concentration profiles and the local shear stress coefficient at the surface are studied. It has been observed that the value of the Sherwood number increases with increasing n.

Keywords— Heat transfer, mass transfer, variable temperature, Prandtl number, Schmidt number

References-

[1 ] Sakiadis, B.C.: Boundary Layer Behaviour on continuous solid surfaces: 1. Boundary-layer equations for two dimensional and axisymmetric flow. Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 7 (1961) p. 26

[2 ] Sakiadis, B.D.: Boundary Layer Behaviour on continuous solid surfaces: II. The boundary layer on a continuous flat surface. Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 7 (1961) p.221

[3 ] Sakiadis, B.C.: Boundary layer behavior on continuous solid surfaces: III. The Boundary layer continuous cylindrical surface. Amer. Inst. Chem. J. 7(1961) p. 467

[4 ] Koldenhof, E.A.: Laminar boundary layer on continuous flat and cylindrical surfaces. Amer. Inst. Chem.J. 9 (1965) p. 411

[5 ] Tsou, F.K.; Sparrow, E.M.; Goldstein, R.J.: Flow and heat transfer in the boundary layer on a continuous moving surface. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 10 (1967) p. 219

[6 ] Pechoc, V.: Cooling of Synthetic fibres. Thesis. Inst. Chem. Technol. Prague 1967

[7 ] Bourne, D.E.; Elliston, D.G.: Heat Transfer through the axially symmetric boundary layer on a moving fibre. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 13 (1970) p. 583

[8 ] Rotte, J.W.; Beck, W.J.: Some models for the calculation of heat transfer coefficients to a moving continuous cylinder. Chem. Engg. Sci. 24 (1969) p.705

[9 ] Gampert, B.: Grenzschichttheoretische Problems des aerodynamischen Schmelzspinnprozesses. Thesis. Berlin: Technical University 1973

[10 ] Gampert, B.: Berechnung des Warmeuberganges an einem in ruhenden fluid kontinuierlich bewegten sschlanken Kreiszylinder fur kleine Werte des Krummungsparameters auf der Basis von Reihenansatzen. Zeit. Angew. Math. Mech. 54 (1974) p. 118

[11 ] Karmis, J; Pechoc, V.: The thermal laminar boundary layer on a continuous cylinder. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 21 (1978) p. 43

[12 ] Tifford, A.N.; Chu, S.T.: Heat Transfer in Laminar Boundary Layers Subject to Surface Pressure and Temperature Distributions. Proc. Second Midwestern Conf. Fluid Mech. (1949) p.363

[13 ] Soundalgekar, V.M.; Ramana Murty T.V.: Heat Transfer in Flow Past a Continuous Moving Plate with Variable Temperature. Warme-und Stoffubertragung 14, (1980) p.91

[14 ] Schlichting, H. : Boundary Layer Theory. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 6 th Ed. (1968)

21-23
6.

Experimental Investigation of Nano Additive Ceric Oxide (Ceo2) - Ethanol Blend on Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine.

Authors: R. Manikandan, N. Sethuraman

Abstract - Diesel engines are widely used for their low fuel consumption and better efficiency. An experimental investigation carried out to establish the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine by using ethanol-ceric oxide blend. At initially preparation phase, the ethanol and cerium oxide by Continuous magnetic stirring has to be done but the blend should not mix completely. The another method of preparing blend by sonigation (ultrasonic bath) used for complete mixing of blend and highly reduced separation of ethanol–cerium oxide. At the second phase Ethanol-cerium oxide-Diesel blend prepared by using adding acetone and di-ethyl ether to reduce the distribution of fuel particles. The performance and emission characteristics have to be done. By this investigation the cerium oxide acts as oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for the oxidation of CO or absorbs oxygen for the reduction of NOx. The ethanolcerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder and the combustion chamber and prevents the deposition of compounds on the cylinder wall results in reduction of HC emissions. The di-ethyl ether which improves the cetane number of fuel molecules.

Keyword- Ethanol, Ceric Oxide, Di ethyl ether, Acetone, Nox, CO, HC

References-

[1] M. Loganathan , A. Anbarasu & A. Velmurugan, Emission Characteristics of Jatropha - Dimethyl Ether Fuel Blends on A DI Diesel Engine, international journal of scientific & technology research volume 1, issue 8, september 2012

[2] Bhupendra Singh Chauhan , Naveen Kumar , Shyam Sunder Pal , Yong Du Jun, Experimental studies on fumigation of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine, Energy 36 (2011) 1030e1038

[3] Senthil Kumar M, Ramesh A, Nagalingam B, Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy 28(10), pp1143–54, 2003.

[4] K. Muralidharan , D. Vasudevan , K.N. Sheeba, Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of biodiesel fuelled Variable compression ratio engine, Energy 36 (2011) 5385e5393

[5] Siddharth Jain , M.P. Sharma, Correlation development between the oxidation and thermal stability of biodiesel, Fuel 102 (2012) 354–358

[6] Pooja Ghodasara, Mayur Ghodasara, Experimental Studies on Emission and Performance Characteristics in Diesel EngineUsing Bio-Diesel Blends And EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation), International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering.

[7] S.M. Palash, M.A. Kalam, H.H. Masjuki, B.M. Masum, A. Sanjid, Impacts of Jatropha biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission of a multi cylinder diesel engine, FTSCEM 2013.

[8] E. Rajasekar, A. Murugesan , R. Subramanian , N. Nedunchezhian, Review of NOx reduction technologies in CI engines fuelled with oxygenated biomass fuels, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2113–2121.

[9] O.D. Hebbal , K.Vijayakumar Reddy , K. Rajagopal , Performance characteristics of a diesel engine with deccan hemp oil, Fuel 85 (2006) 2187–2194.

[10] J. Sadhik Basha and R.B. Anand, Effects of Alumina Nanoparticles Blended Jatropha Biodiesel Fuel on Working Characteristics of a Diesel Engine, International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Technology. ISSN 0974-3146 Volume 2, Number 1 (2010), pp. 53—62.

[11] Yanan Gan, Li Qiao, Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles, Combustion and Flame 158 (2011) 354–368.

[12] Matthew Jones1, Calvin H Li, Abdollah Afjeh, GP Peterson, Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol), Jones et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:246.

[13] Heejung Jung, David B. Kittelson, Michael R. Zachariah, The influence of a cerium additive on ultrafine diesel particle emissions and kinetics of oxidation, Combustion and Flame 142 (2005) 276–288.

[14] Yanan Gan, Li Qiao, Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles, Combustion and Flame 158 (2011) 354–368.

[15] Annarita Viggiano , Vinicio Magi, A comprehensive investigation on the emissions of ethanol HCCI engines, Applied Energy 93 (2012) 277–287.

[16] Claudio Fortea, Gian Marco Bianchia, Enrico Cortia, Buono Micheleb, Fantoni Stefanob, Evaluation of the mixture formation process of high performance engine with a combined experimental and numerical methodology, Energy Procedia 45 ( 2014 ) 869 – 878.

[17] E. Rajasekar , A. Murugesan , R. Subramanian , N. Nedunchezhian, Review of NOx reduction technologies in CI engines fuelled with oxygenated biomass fuels, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2113–2121.

24-28
7.

A View: Different Approaches for Utilization of Network Based Intrusion Detection Systems

Authors: Mit H. Dave, Dr. Samidha Dwivedi Sharma

Abstract— A study of thermal boundary layer on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate, whose temperature varies as Axn , where A is a constant and x is measured from the leading edge of the plate has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated. The effect of various governing parameters, such as Prandtl number Pr, temperature exponent n and Schmidt number Sc which determine the concentration profiles and the local shear stress coefficient at the surface are studied. It has been observed that the value of the Sherwood number increases with increasing n.

Keywords— Heat transfer, mass transfer, variable temperature, Prandtl number, Schmidt number

References-

[1 ] Sakiadis, B.C.: Boundary Layer Behaviour on continuous solid surfaces: 1. Boundary-layer equations for two dimensional and axisymmetric flow. Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 7 (1961) p. 26

[2 ] Sakiadis, B.D.: Boundary Layer Behaviour on continuous solid surfaces: II. The boundary layer on a continuous flat surface. Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 7 (1961) p.221

[3 ] Sakiadis, B.C.: Boundary layer behavior on continuous solid surfaces: III. The Boundary layer continuous cylindrical surface. Amer. Inst. Chem. J. 7(1961) p. 467

[4 ] Koldenhof, E.A.: Laminar boundary layer on continuous flat and cylindrical surfaces. Amer. Inst. Chem.J. 9 (1965) p. 411

[5 ] Tsou, F.K.; Sparrow, E.M.; Goldstein, R.J.: Flow and heat transfer in the boundary layer on a continuous moving surface. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 10 (1967) p. 219

[6 ] Pechoc, V.: Cooling of Synthetic fibres. Thesis. Inst. Chem. Technol. Prague 1967

[7 ] Bourne, D.E.; Elliston, D.G.: Heat Transfer through the axially symmetric boundary layer on a moving fibre. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 13 (1970) p. 583

[8 ] Rotte, J.W.; Beck, W.J.: Some models for the calculation of heat transfer coefficients to a moving continuous cylinder. Chem. Engg. Sci. 24 (1969) p.705

[9 ] Gampert, B.: Grenzschichttheoretische Problems des aerodynamischen Schmelzspinnprozesses. Thesis. Berlin: Technical University 1973

[10 ] Gampert, B.: Berechnung des Warmeuberganges an einem in ruhenden fluid kontinuierlich bewegten sschlanken Kreiszylinder fur kleine Werte des Krummungsparameters auf der Basis von Reihenansatzen. Zeit. Angew. Math. Mech. 54 (1974) p. 118

[11 ] Karmis, J; Pechoc, V.: The thermal laminar boundary layer on a continuous cylinder. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 21 (1978) p. 43

[12 ] Tifford, A.N.; Chu, S.T.: Heat Transfer in Laminar Boundary Layers Subject to Surface Pressure and Temperature Distributions. Proc. Second Midwestern Conf. Fluid Mech. (1949) p.363

[13 ] Soundalgekar, V.M.; Ramana Murty T.V.: Heat Transfer in Flow Past a Continuous Moving Plate with Variable Temperature. Warme-und Stoffubertragung 14, (1980) p.91

[14 ] Schlichting, H. : Boundary Layer Theory. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 6 th Ed. (1968)

29-31
8.

IEEE 802.11 WLAN and Advancements: A Review

Authors: Gagandeep Singh, Shelza, Sukhvir Singh

Abstract— For providing flexibility and mobility in accessing networks and services, wireless communication specifically Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) has become popular in due to ease of installation and low cost. Due to increasing number of laptop users and increasing power of mobile phones, WLAN is becoming a viable option for everyone. WLAN is based on IEEE standard 802.11. With the advancements in wireless LAN standards and increasing data rate, mobile users can experience high levels of performance, reduced delay and high availability that make WLAN suitable for most of the applications. 802.11 working group has extended this standard from time to time by making some advancements and changes to the original IEEE standard. Most common extensions are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and work on 802.11ac is going on. Upcoming standards like 802.11ac can support various new applications. WLANs are on now becoming mainstream connectivity solution for a broad range of application areas and customers. At one time IEEE standard 802.11 was striving to achieve performance comparable to wired Ethernet, but with upcoming standards it may even surpass the benefits being offered by wired connectivity. In this paper we have presented basic architecture of IEEE standard 802.11, its history that is how it has reached from 802.11a to 802.11ac. We have also given details of advancements being done in 802.11ac and its target application areas.

Keywords— WLAN, IEEE 802.11, PHY, MAC, OFDM, HDTV

References-

[1] WHITE PAPER on IEEE 802.11ac, Aruba Networks Inc. 2014, pp1-37

[2] Richard W, “ WHITE PAPER on Understanding the IEEE 802.11ac Wi-Fi Standard” Meru Networks, july, 2013 pp 1-7.

[3] Delivering Breakthrough Performance with 802.11ac, IXIA, April 2012

[4] Schelstraete S, " WHITE PAPER on An introduction to 802.11ac", Quantenna Communications, Sept, 2011, pp 1-10

[5] Ergen M, "IEEE 802.11 Tutorial" Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of California Berkeley, june 2002, pp 6-10.

[6] Rezvani B, "Pushing 802.11n Wi-Fi Technology So It Can Deliver Multiple Simultaneous Streams" Wireless Design and Development, Feb 2012

[7] Pervaiz M, Cardei M, and Wu J, "Security in wireless local area networks" book on Security in Distributed and Networking Systems, World Scientific, Aug 2007, pp-393-419.

[8] https://technology.ihs.com/394115/wi-fi-chipset-shipments-todouble-in-2011 [9] WHITE PAPER on IEEE 802.11ac demystified, Xirrus, Oct 2013, pp 1-6.

[10] Banerji S and Chowdhury R.S., "Recent Developments in IEEE 802.11: WLAN Technology" International Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical and Computer Technology, Vol. 3(9), Oct, 2013, pp. 1001-1013.

[11] Paul T and Ogunfunmi T, "Wireless LAN Comes of Age: Understanding the IEEE 802.11n Amendment" IEEE CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, March 2008, pp. 28-54.

[12] Banerji S., Chowdhury R.S., "On IEEE 802.11: Wireless LAN Technology" International Journal of Mobile Network Communications & Telematics (IJMNCT) Vol. 3, Issue. 4, 2013, pp. 1-19.

32-39
9.

Combustion Analysis of Inverted M Type Piston CI Engine by Using CFD

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Manjunatha K, Chandragowda M, Ravi Kumar K J

Abstract — Increasing computational power of modern computers, multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has found more and more applications in diesel engine research, design and development. Various successful applications have proven the reliability of using multidimensional CFD tools to assist in diesel engine research, design and development. By using CFD tools effectively it is easy to predict and analyse various details that are technically difficult like in cylinder process of diesel combustion, temperature & pressure contours, emission etc. prior to experimental tests to reduce the number of investigated parameters as well as time and thus costs. A multidimensional model was created and analysis of combustion was done using FLUENT, ANSYS 14.5 package.

Keywords- CFD, Combustion modeling, Diesel combustion, Meshing, Simulation.

References-

[1] Lakshminarayanan, P. A. et. al, Modelling diesel combustion (Springer, 2009)

[2] Dr. Ibtihal Al-Namie et. al., “Study the Effect of Ceramic Coating on the Performance and Emissions of Diesel Engine", Journal of Engineering , August 2012, Volume 18, Number 8,935-942.

[3] Krishnan, D.B. et. al., “Performance of an Al-Si graphite particle composite piston in a diesel engine", Transactions of Wear, 1980,60(2), 205-215.

[4] Murat Ciniviz et.al., " Ceramic Coating Applications and Research Fields for Internal Combustion Engines", Ceramic Coatings - Applications in Engineering, Feb. 2012,195-234.

[5] Alkidas, A.C.," Performance and emissions achievements with an uncooled heavy duty, single cylinder diesel engine", SAE, vol. 890141, 1989.

[6] Uzun, A., Cevik, I. and Akcil, M, "Effects of thermal barrier coating material on a turbocharged diesel engine performance", Surf. Coat. Technology, 1999, 116–119.

[7] Spaniel, M., Macek, J., Divis, M. and Tichanek, R., ‘‘Diesel engine head steady state analysis’’, International Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars, 2003,2(3), 34–41.

[8] M. Fadaei a, et. al., "New thermo-mechanical analysis of cylinder heads using a multi-field approach", Scientia Iranica, November 2010, 18 (1), 66–74.

[9] Parlak, A.," Experimental Investigation of Injection Advance and Compression Ratio of a Supercharged Ceramic Coated Diesel Engine", PhD Thesis, Sakarya University, Turkey (in Turkish), 2000.

[10] Gataowski, J.A., 'Evaluation of a Selectively Cooled Single Cylinder 0.5L Diesel Engine", SAE, Paper 900693,USA, 1990.

[11] Afify, E.M. & Klett, D.E. (1996), "The Effect Of Selective Insulation On The Performance, Combustion, And NOx Emissions Of A DI Diesel Engine", International & Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Michigan February 26-29.

[12] Rasihhan, Y. & Wallce F.J., Piston-Liner "Thermal Resistance Model for Diesel Engine Simultion", Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 1991, Vol.205.

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10.

An iTrust Based Misbehaviour Detection Technique on Clustered Nodes in Delay Tolerant Network

Authors: A. Mary Judith, V. Anusha, S. Vinod

Abstract- The delay tolerant network suffers from various problems such as frequent network disconnectivity and many routing problems .The transmission attains a failure due to these problems. The existing system created an iTrust scheme to detect the malicious nodes that puts down the transmission. This detection mechanism works at a certain probability and reputation in order to reduce the cost and to ensure the security. The proposed system makes the DTN into clusters and implements the same detection scheme. This will make the network more efficient than the existing system by reducing the traffic, energy consumption, time consumption and prolong the DTN lifetime.

Keywords- Clustering, Malicious node detection, DTN, inspection game model.

References-

[1] Haojin Zhu, Suguo Du, Zhaoyu Gao, Mianxiong Dong, and Zhenfu Cao, “A Probabilistic Misbehavior Detection Scheme toward Efficient Trust Establishment in Delay-Tolerant Networks”, IEEE transactions on parallel and distributedsystems,vol.25,no.1,january2014.

[2] Q. Li, S. Zhu, and G. Cao, “Routing in Socially Selfish DelayTolerant Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM ’10, 2010.

[3] H. Zhu, X. Lin, R. Lu, Y. Fan, and X. Shen, “SMART: A Secure Multilayer Credit-Based Incentive Scheme for Delay-Tolerant Networks,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 8,pp. 828-836, 2009.

[4] Q. Li and G. Cao, “Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Disruption Tolerant Networks,” IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security,vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 664-675, Apr. 2012.

[5] R. Lu, X. Lin, H. Zhu, and X. Shen, “Pi: A Practical Incentive Protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1483-1493, Apr. 2010.

[6] E. Ayday, H. Lee, and F. Fekri, “Trust Management and Adversary DetectionforDelayTolerantNetworks,”Proc.MilitaryComm.Conf.( Milcom’10), 2010.

[7] B.B. Chen and M.C. Chan, “Mobicent: A Credit-BasedIncentive System for Disruption-Tolerant Network,” Proc. IEEEINFOCOM’10,2010.

[8] A. Lindgren and A. Doria, “Probabilistic Routing Protocol for Intermittently Connected Networks,” draft-lindgren-dtnrgprophet-03, 2007.

[9] W. Gao and G. Cao, “User-Centric Data DisseminationinDisruptionTolerant Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM ’11, 2011.

[10] T. Hossmann, T. Spyropoulos, and F. Legendre, “Know the Neighbor: Towards Optimal Mapping of Contacts to Social Graphs for DTN Routing,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM ’10, 2010.

[11] O. Younis, M. Krunz, and S. Ramasubramanian, “Node Clusteringin WirelessSensorNetworks:RecentDevelopmentsandDeploymentCh allenges,”IEEENetwork, vol.20,no.3,pp.20-25,May/June2006.

[12] S. Bandyopadhyay and E. Coyle, “An Energy Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc.IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 3, pp. 1713-1723, Mar.2003.

[13] Vahdat, Amin; Becker, David (2000), "Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks", Technical Report CS-2000- 06, Duke University.

[14] Harminder Singh Bindra, Amrit Lal Sangal,” Considerations and Open Issues in Delay Tolerant Network’S (DTNs) Security”, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, NIT Jalandhar, Punjab, India, June 2, 2010.

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11.

Safety Assessment of Construction Operation of Contractors for Industrial Buildings Using Fuzzy Inference Methods

Authors: Huang Li-Jeng, Fu Te-Shun

Abstract- Construction of industrial buildings is one of important tasks in civil engineering practice. Research reported that very high proportion labor injury occurs in the employees of contractors. Reliable safety assessment system for construction operation is required. However, the risk factors are inherently uncertain as well as vague. Traditional risk analysis based on probability theory can only treat the uncertainty. The paper is aimed at safety assessment of construction operation of contractors of industrial buildings using fuzzy inference methods. Two approaches fuzzy reasoning-based methods are employed: (1) fuzzy inference method using MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox; (2) Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP). Safety influence factors are first arranged in hierarchical structure wherein three major influence factors are contractor’s capacity, construction safety and construction cost, from which some sub-sets of influence factors are included such as manufacturer scale, training, planning ability, moving works, high altitude works and fire-related works, etc. Each sub-item covers several influence factors respectively. Totally 80 items are included in the safety assessment system. Trapezoidal membership functions and appropriate inference rules are employed in analysis using MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox and the results are compared with those investigated by FAHP. Three actual contractors are taken to be testing examples and the results obtained are shown to be reasonable as expected.

Keywords—Construction Safety, FAHP, Fuzzy Inference, Fuzzy Logic, Safety Assessment

References-

[1] Heinrich, H. W., Petersen, D. and Roos, N., 1980. Industrial Accident Prevention, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

[2] Kartam, N. A., Flood, I. and Koushki, P., 2000. Construction Safety in Kuwait: Issues, Procedures, Problems and Recommendations, Safety Sci., 36, 163-184.

[3] Chen, H. Y., 2008. The Study of Taiwan Power Company and Contractors Employees’ Occupational Accident, Master Thesis, Asia University, Taiwan.

[4] Dubois, D. and Pride, H., 1980. Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and Applications, New York.

[5] Schmucker, K. J., 1984. Fuzzy Sets, Natural Language Computations and Risk Analysis, Computer Science Press.

[6] Klir, G. J. and Folger, T. A., 1988. Fuzzy Set, Uncertainty and Information, Prentice-Hall..

[7] Kaufmann, A. and Gupta, M. .M., 1991. Introduction to Fuzzy Arithmetric, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

[8] Kosko, B., 1991. Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems, Prentice-Hall.

[9] Zimmermann, H. J., 1992. Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Application, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[10] Klir, G. and Yuan, B., 1995, Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications, Prentice-Hall.

[11] Negnevitsky, M., 2002. Artificial Intellignce: A Guide to Intelligent Systems, Addison-Wesley.

[12] Zadel, L. A. 1965. Fuzzy Sets, Information and Control, 8(3), 338- 353.

[13] Zadel, L. A., 1973, Outline of a New Approach to the Analysis of Complex Systems and Decision Process, IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man. and Cyber., SMC 3(1), 28-44.

[14] Mamdani, E. H. and Assilian, S. 1975. An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller, Int. J. Man-Mach. Studi, 7(1), 1-13.

[15] Zadeh, L. A., 1975. The Concept of a Linguistic Variable and Its Application to Approximate Reasoning, Part I, Inform. Sci., 8, 199- 249.

[16] Zadeh, L. A., 1975. The Concept of a Linguistic Variable and Its Application to Approximate Reasoning, Part II, Inform. Sci., 8, 301- 357.

[17] Blockley, D., 1982. Fuzzy Systems in Civil Engineering,” In Gupta, M. M. and Sanchez, E., ed., Approximate Reasoning in Decision Processes, North-Holland, New York, 103-115.

[18] Brown, C. B., Chameau, J. L., Palmer, R. and Yao, J. T. P., eds. 1985, Proc. of NSF Workshop on Civil Engineering Applications of Fuzzy Sets Purdue University, West Lafayette.

[19] Huang, L. J., Wang, Y. W., Wang, Y. J. and Chen, G.. T., 2007, Application of Fuzzy Inference to Safety Assessment of Bridges: A Case Study of Lin-Ko Cable-Stayed Bridge, J. Jingwei, National Kauhsiung University of Applied Science, 28, 66-78 (in Chinese).

[20] Huang, L. J. and Zhu, J. S., 2008. Fuzzy Risk Assessment of Fire Hazard Risk, 15th Annual Conference of Military Academy, June, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C. (in Chinese).

[21] Huang, L. J., Chen, J. W. and Yang, S. J., 2010. Fuzzy Safety Assessment of Foundation of Bridge Systems, National Kauhsiung University of Applied Science, (in Chinese).

[22] Huang, L. J., Syu, H. J., Tseng, S. N. and Kuo, J. T., 2011. Fuzzy Safety Assessment of Structure Subjected to Explosive Loadings, 2011 Aeronautic Technology and Flight Safety Conference, Nov. 25, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C. (in Chinese)

[23] Saaty, T. L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process, McGraw-Hill.

[24] Forman, E. and Gass, S., 2001. The Analytic Hierarchy Process-An Exposition, J. Opera. Res., 49(4), 469-486.

[25] Ngai, E., 2002. Selection of Web Sites for On-Line Advertising Using the AHP, J. Inform. Manag., 40(4), 233-242.

[26] Pang, Z. L., Chang, H. J., Li, Y. Y., Zhang, N. Q., Du, R. Q. and Hu L. Q., 2008. Analytic Hierarchy Process Evaluation of Water Quality in Danjiangkou Reservoir-source of the Middle-Line Project to Transfer Water from South to North, China, ACTA Ecologica Sinica, 28(4), 1810-1819.

[27] Laarhoven, P. J. M. and Pedryez, W., 1983. A Fuzzy Extension of Saaty’s Priority Theory, Fuzzy Sets and Sys., 11(3), 229-241.

[28] Mon, D. L., Cheng, C. H. and Lin, J. .C.,1994. Evaluating Weapon System Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Based on Entropy Weight, Fuzzy Sets and Sys., 62 (2), 127-134.

[29] Mikhailov, L., 2004. Group Prioritization in the AHP by Fuzzy Preference Programming Method, J. Comp. Opera. Res., 31(2), 293- 301.

[30] Pan, N. F. 2006, Application of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to Assessment of Construction Techniques for Deep Excavation and Soil-Retaining in Kaohsiung Area, Trans. Archit, 58, 19-40, (in Chinese)

[31] Bozbura, F. T., Beskese, A. and Kahrman, C., 2007. Prioritizatrion of Human Capital Management Indicators Using Fuzzy AHP, Expert Systems with Appl., 32, 1100-1112.

[32] Wang, Y. M., Luo, Y. and Hua, Z., 2007. On the Extent Analysis Method for Fuzzy AHP and Its Application, European J. Opera. Res., 1(10), 1016.

[33] Lee, F. C. 2010. Development of New Fuzzy Models for Risk Assessment, Master Thesis of Department of Commercial Boats, National Ocean University (in Chinese).

[34] Hsueh, S. L., 2012. A Fuzzy Utility-Based Multi-Criteria Model for Evaluating Households’ Energy Conservation Performance: A Taiwanese Case Study, Energies, 5(8), 2818-2834.

[35] Mathworks, 2001. Fuzzy Logic ToolBox for Use with MATLAB: User’s Guide, ver. 2, The Mathworkds, Inc.

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12.

Open Source Social Technologies for Teaching Computer Programming

Authors: Amine Bitar, Antoine Melki

Abstract— An estimated 87% of university students rely on Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in their daily communications, like sharing ideas, events, discussions and social activities. Some universities have adopted open source SNSs as a communication tool for teaching to improve students’ academic performance and increases institutional revenues. This paper discusses the benefits of using open source SNSs, especially Elgg, in teaching Computer Programming. It is organized as follows: 1) A literature review to define open education, 2) a review of open source social networking technologies and their effects on education systems, 3) an overview of Elgg pointing out its features and benefits as a social learning engine, 4) a case study of implementing Elgg in teaching Computer Programming course, discussion of results is followed, and finally 5) a conclusion with a recommendation to adopt Elgg as a substitute for learning management systems.

Keywords— Computer Programming, education, Elearning systems, open source, social networks.

References-

[1] Stallman, R. 1999. The GNU Project. Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html .

[2] Van Rooij S. 2009. Adopting Open-Source Software Applications in Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of the Literature. Review of Educational Research, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 682–701.

[3] Weber S. 2004. The Success of Open Source. Cambridge,. MA: Harvard University Press.

[4] Hiltz S.R. and Turoff M. 2005.. Education Goes Digital: The Evolution of Online Learning and The Revolution in Higher Education. Communications of the ACM, vol. 48, no. 10, pp 59-63.

[5] Siemens G. 2003. Open Source Content in Education: Part 2 – Developing, Sharing, Expanding Resources. Retrieved July 26, 2014, from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/open_source_part_2.htm.

[6] Jafari A., McGee P., and Carmean C. 2007. A Research Study on Current CMS and Next Generation E-Learning Environment. Next Generation Course Management System Group.

[7] Garett N., Thoms B., Soffer M., and Ryan T. 2007. Extending the Elgg Social Networking System to Enhance the Campus Conversation. DESRIST.

[8] Berscia W. and Miller M. 2006. What’s Worth? The Perceived Benefits of Instructional Blogging. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education.

[9] Elgg. http://www.elgg.org, last accessed July 26, 2014, http://ngcmsgroup.epsilen.com/Groups/Public/Home.aspx?pr=ngcms group

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13.

Neural Network Based Classifier (Pattern recognition) for Classification of Iris Data Set

Authors: Labhya Sharma, Utsav Sharma

Abstract— In this paper we are working on the Neural Network based classifier that solves the classification problem. The paper describes the multilayer perception approach to describe the neural network architecture. For this classifier we use the Fisher’s Iris Database (Fisher, 1936) available in MATLAB and on the Internet. This database is the preprocessed and is the best database in the pattern recognition literature. It contains 3 different classes of 50 objects each, where each class is an iris plant. Classes are named as Iris Setosa, Iris Versicolour, Iris Virginica. We finally describe the result of this classifier.

Keywords—Artificial Neural Network, Pattern recognition, Multilayer Perceptron, IRIS Database, Confusion Matrix.

References-

[1] Chusak Thanawattano and Surapol Tan-a-ram, ―Cardiac Arrhythmia Detection based on Signal Variation Characteristic‖ International Conference on BioMedical Engineering and Informatics, 2008, pp. 367-370

[2] Aqel, M.M., Jena, R.K., Mahanti, P.K. and Srivastava (2009) „Soft Computing Methodologies in Bioinformatics‟, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol.26, no 2, pp.189-203.

[3] Pai, G. V and Rajasekaran, S, (2006), „Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms Synthesis and Applications‟, 6th ed, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd

[4] Kavitha Kannan „Data Mining Report on IRIS and Australian Credit Card Dataset‟, School of Computer Science and Information Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

[5] Dr.Hapudeniya, Muditha M. MBBS(2010),„Artificial Neural Networks in Bioinformatics‟ Medical Officer and Postgraduate Trainee in Biomedical Informatics , Postgraduate Institute of Medicine , University of Colombo ,Sri Lanka, vol.1, no 2,pp.104- 111.

[6] A.K. Jain, J. Mao, and K.M. Mohiuddin, “Artificial Neural Networks: A Tutorial”, Computer, pp. 31-44, Mar, 1996.

[7] Joe Kilian, Hava T. Siegelmann, The Dynamic Universality of Sigmoidal Neural Networks, information and computation 128, 48- 56 (1996)

[8] M. Avcı, T. Yıldırım, Classification of Escherichia Coli Bacteria by Artificial Neural Networks, IEEE Conferance on Intelligent Systems, [9] S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, Macmillan College Publishing, New York 1994.

[10] Avcı Mutlu, Tülay Yıldırım(2003) „Microcontroller based neural network realization and IRIS plant classifier application‟, International XII. Turkish Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network

[11] Fisher, A. W., Fujimoto, R. J. and Smithson, R. C.A. (1991) „A Programmable Analog Neural Network Processor‟, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 222-229.

[12] Rath, Santanu and Vipsita, Swati (2010) „An Evolutionary Approach for Protein Classification Using Feature Extraction by Artificial Neural Network‟, Int‟l Conf. on Computer & Communication TechnologyıICCCT‟10.

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14.

Effect of RBI-81 on Properties of Black Cotton Soil

Authors: Najia Nouf, Sureka Naagesh

Abstract— Construction activities on Expansive soils are challenging since they pose several problems to the structures built on them. To utilize expansive soils in an effective way, proper ground improvement techniques are to be adopted. One of the most widely used technique is to stabilize the expansive soil by conventional admixtures like lime, cement, and flyash. In the present study, an attempt is made to modify engineering properties of a black cotton soil from Nagpur region, Maharashtra, India by stabilizing it with an eco friendly stabilizer RBI Grade 81 to make it suitable as a subgrade material. Tests such as Atterberg limits, Modified Proctor Compaction, California Bearing Ratio (C.B.R.), Unconfined Compressive Strength (U.C.S.), Consolidation, were carried out on the untreated and stabilizer treated soil with varying curing period of 7 ,14 and 28 days. The stabilizer was added to the soil in different percentages (by dry weight) varying from 1% to 6%. The results indicate that RBI-81 is effective in improving engineering properties of black cotton soil. However, an additional additive along with RBI-81 seems to be a better option especially for expansive soils.

Keywords - CBR, Expansive soil, RBI-81, Stabilizer, free swell.

References-

[1]. Anitha. K. R, R. Ashalatha, Arvee Sujil Johnson (2009), Effects of RBI Grade 81 on Different Types of Subgrade Soil, 10th National Conference on Technological Trends.

[ 2]. Basma. A. A, Tuncer. E. R (1991), Effect of Lime on Volume Change and Compressibility of Expansive Clays, Transportation Research Record No. 1295.

[3]. F. H. Chen (1988), Foundations On Expansive Soils, Elsevier Science & Technology.

[ 4]. K. V. Madurwar, P. P. Dahale, A. N .Burile (2013), Comparative Study of Black Cotton Soil Stabilization with RBI Grade 81 and Sodium Silicate, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology.

[5]. Laxmikant Yadu, Rajesh Kumar Tripathi, Dharamveer Singh(2011), Engineering Comparison of Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash Stabilized Black Cotton Soil, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering.

[6]. Marshall .R. Thompson (1967), factors influencing the plasticity and strength of lime soil mixtures, University of Iilinois

[7]. Mitchelle. J. K, John Wiley and sons (1976), Fundementals of soil behaviour, New York.

[ 8]. Nadgouda, K. A. Hegde, R.A.(2010), The Effect of Lime Stabilization on Properties of Black Cotton Soil, Indian Geotechnical Conference – 2010, IGS Mumbai Chapter & IIT Bombay.

[9]. Pankaj R. Modak, Prakash B. Nangare, Sanjay D. Nagrale, Ravindra D. Nalawade, Vivek. S. Chavhan (2012), Stabilisation of Black Cotton Soil Using Admixtures, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)

[10]. Sushanta Bhuyan (2010) , Stabilization of blast furnace slag and fly ash using lime and RBI Grade 81, department of civil engineering, NIT, Rourkela.

[11]. Vinay, et.al (2011), Strength properties of soil treated with stabilizers, Project report – RAASTA- Centre for road technology

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15.

GSM Based Water level and Temperature Monitoring System

Authors: Usama Abdullah, Ayesha Ali

Abstract- The system we have proposed is an extended approach to monitor a control industrial system. We can monitor the industrial system from any location, due to this it will save lots of time in this busy era. In this project, we have designed GSM based water level and temperature monitoring system (WLTMS). We detect the water level of the tank which is connected to the industry. We also monitor the temperature of the tank. For this purpose, we used LM35 sensor which defines the parameters of the temperature sensor. Analogue output of LM35 is amplified through a process of signal conditioning, where OP-741 is used to amplify the signal. Amplified signal is fed into an ADC for the sake of digital data. This digital data is transferred to an LCD for displaying result. PIC microcontroller is used for this procedure. Modem is also connected to this controller for the wireless communication of the data through GSM technology by receiving an alert through SMS.

References-

[1] Hughes D., Greenwood P., Coulson G., Blair G., Pappenberger F., Smith P., Beven K., “GridStix: Supporting Flood Prediction using Embedded Hardware and Next Generation Grid Middleware”, to be published in the proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Mobile Distributed Computing (MDC'06), Niagara Falls, USA, June 2006.

[2] Beaulah, S.A., Chalabi, Z.S., Randle, D.G., 1998. A real-time knowledge-based system for intelligent monitoring in complex, sensor-rich environments. Comput. Electron. Agric. 21 (1), 53–68.

[3] Butler, Z., Corke, P., Peterson, R., Rus, D., 2004. Virtual fences for controlling cows. In: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, New Orleans, LA, USA, April 26–May 1, pp. 4429–4436.

[4] Q.Hao and Z.Song, "The status and development of the intelligent Automatic meter reading system," China Science and Technology Information, no.19, pp.72, Oct 2005.

[5] Wei Xiaolong. Interface technology and examples of design of system based on MSP430 series single chip. Beijing: Beijing university of Aeronautics and Astronautics Press. 2002.

[6] C. E. Lin, C.-W. Hsu, Y.-S. Lee, and C. C. Li, “Verification of unmanned air vehicle flight control and surveillance using mobile communication,”

[7] Hamoud, G. Chen, R.-L. Bradley, “Risk assessment of power systems SCADA,” IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2003, Vol.2, Jul. 2003.

[8] J. L. Peterson, Petri-net Theory and the Modeling of Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1981.

[9] C. E. Lin, C.-W. Hsu, Y.-S. Lee, and C.C.Li, “Verification of unmanned air vehicle flight control and surveillance using mobile communication,”J. Aerosp. Comput. Inf. Commun., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 189–197, Apr. 2004. [10] Z. Wei, Y.L. Zhou. “Sending and receiving short message by TC35i and person computer”. Modern Electronics Technique. 30(15), 188- 190 (2007)

[11] JWR-SJ Water-Level Monitor. Available online: http://www.5jjdw.com/htmlcache/product /2009-06-13/23803.html (accessed on 26 January 2011).

[12]Anies, Aprilson P., et.al. “A Global System for Mobile Communications Interface via Smoke and Fire Data Acquisition System” School Year 2008-2009

[13] Islam, N.S. Wasi-ur-Rahman, M. An intelligent SMS-based remote Water Metering System. 12th International Conference on Computers and Information Technology, 2009, 21-23 Dec. 2009, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

[14] G. Aranguren, L. Nozal, A. Blazquez, and J. Arias, "Remote control of Sensors and Actuators by GSM", IEEE 2002, 28th Annual Conference of The Industrial Electronics Society IECON 02, vol. 3, 5-8 Nov. 2002, pp.2306 2310.

[15] Connectivity FAQs [Online]. Available: http://www.microchip.com

[16] Anumalla, S., Ramamurthy, B., Gosselin, D. C., & Burbach, M. (2005, 22-25 May 2005). Ground water monitoring using smart sensors. Paper presented at the Electro Information Technology, 2005 IEEE International Conference on.

[17] Vasif Ahmed and Siddharth A. Ladhake, “Innovative Cost Effective Approach for Cell Phone based Remote Controlled Embedded System for Irrigation,” Intl. Conf. on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, 2011, pp 419-422.

[18] Baburao Kodavati, V.K.Raju, S.SrinivasaRao, A.V.Prabu, T.Appa Rao, Dr.Y.V.Narayana “GSM and GPS based vehicle location and tracking system” IJERA Vol. 1 Issue 3, pp.616-625.

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16.

Evaluation of Locally Produced and Imported Reinforced Steel Rods for Structural Purposes in Nigerian Market

Authors: A. S. Awofadeju, A. Adekiigbe, A. O. Akanni, B. G. Adeyemo

Abstract— An investigation was conducted to evaluate the level of conformity of reinforced steel rods used for structural purpose in Nigeria with relevant to local and international standards. In this research, elemental analysis, tensile, hardness test was carried out on the sample of steel products from three indigenous steel industries and imported in accordance with ASTM A706. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the indigenous steel samples have higher carbon contents than the 0.30% recommended standard. The results obtained from the mechanical properties tests which ranged from 382.91 - 551.72 N/mm2 , 520.16 – 738.46 N/mm2 , 8.33 – 22.20%, 0.083 – 0.222, 1.20 – 1.68, and 170.13 – 299BHN for the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation, strain, strain hardening ratio and hardness met the recommended standards. We can conclude that the tested steel rods are suitable for structural purpose since they have higher mechanical property values.

Keywords— Steel rods, elemental analysis, structural purpose, mechanical property.

References-

[1] Dzogbewu, C. T. K. (2010). Metallurgical studies of locally produced and imported low carbon steel rods on the Ghanaian market. Unpublished Master Thesis submitted to the department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Nkruamah.

[2] Ayininuola, G. M., and Olalusi, O. O. (2004). Assessment of building failures in Nigeria: Lagos and Ibadan Case Study” African Journal of Science and Technology, 5(1): 73-78

[3] Osarenmwinda, J. O., and Amuchi, E.C. (2013). Quality assessment of commercially available reinforced steel rods in Nigeria markets. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4(4): 562-565

[4] Alabi, A.G.F., and Onyeji, L.I. (2010). Analysis and comparative assessment of locally produced reinforcing steel bars for structural purposes. Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering, (7)2: 49-60

[5] Kareem, B. (2009). Tensile and Chemical Analyses of Selected Steel Bars Produced in Nigeria, AU J.T. 13(1): 29-33

[6] Ejeh, S.P., and Jibrin, M.U. (2012): Tensile tests on reinforcing steel bars in the Nigerian construction industry; IOSR Journal of Mechanical and civil Engineering, 4(2): 6 -12.

[7] Arum, C. (2008). Verification of properties of concrete reinforcement bars: Nigeria as a Case Study. Indoor and Built Environment, 17(4): 370–376.

[8] Nigerian Standard, NST.65-Mn. (1994). Raw Materials and Specifications for Federal Government Steel Companies, 1st Edition, 1994

[9] British Standards Institutions. BS4449 (1997). Carbon Steel Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete. London. pp.1-17

[10] ASTM Standards, A706. (1990). Metals, Test Methods and Analytical Procedures, Metals – Mechanical Testing; Elevated and Low – Temperature Tests; Metallography; Section 03: volume 01.

[11] Kutz, M. (2002). Role of Alloying Elements in Steel, Hand Book of Materials Selection, Kutz Myer Associates, John Wiley and Sons Inc., pp. 45 – 65.

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17.

Wireless Power Transfer by Incorporation of Solar Energy

Authors: Anand.M, Yogesh Kannan

Abstract — This paper elucidates the transfer of electrical energy from one place to another, wirelessly avoiding quotidian methods of power transfer. The phenomenon incorporated in here is to transfer power using a renewable source over a range, without the use of wired medium. Solar panels are incorporated in this system as they play a key factor in providing a renewable source of energy on contrary to non-renewable or AC source supplies. The panels convert light into electrical energy and is stored in batteries. This energy is then passed on to the transmitter, which basically transmits energy in the form of electromagnetic waves, through one inductor at the transmitting end and another at the receiver end. The receiver decodes the transmitted EM wave to its original form, producing the same voltage as applied at the transmitting end. This whole apparatus is confined into a panel where it could be placed on roofs or ceiling providing range over a wider area throughout the work space.

Keywords—–Quotidian, wireless, renewable, electromagnetic

References-

[1 ] Include #IEEE paper from 2005-2013 as references

[2 ] http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/802.11n-2009.html

[3 ] Engineering Electromagnetics- WH Hayt & J A Buck

[4 ] V. Tarokh and H. Jafarkhani. ―On the computation and

[5 ] reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio in multicarrier communications‖ IEEE Trans. Commun., vol 48, no. 1, pp. 37-44, January 2000

[6 ] Electronic devices and Circuit theory- Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky

[7 ] Daniel Kuerschner and Christian Rathge, "Contactless energy transmission systems with improved coil positioning flexibility for high power applications", 39th Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC) 2008, Rodes, Greece, 15. - 19. June 2008, p.4326

[8 ] J. Hirai, T-W. Kim, A. Kawamura-"Study on intelligent battery charging using inductive transmission of power and information"

[9 ] Yungtaek Jang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Milan M. Jovanovic´, Fellow, IEEE A Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System for Portable-Telephone Battery Chargers

[10 ] Charles R. Sullivan, Weidong Li, Satish Prabhakaran, Shanshan Lu,- "Design and Fabrication of Low-Loss Toroidal Air-Core Inductors"

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18.

Study of Clock Synchronized Hybrid Cryptographic Algorithm

Authors: Abhishek Singh, Jaishri Tiwari

Abstract— This paper discusses a new technique of cryptography which combines the DES and AES algorithm and also synchronize the key generation with this hybrid algorithm. The term cryptography represents the combination of encryption and decryption .In encryption the plain data converted into cipher with the help of key, this cipher is a unintelligible data which is converted into plain data in decryption process. In this hybrid cryptographic algorithm every DES round have one AES round. This algorithm has reinforced the previous standards and the clocked synchronization gives us highly secure algorithm. Therefore this encryption algorithm provides side channel attack protection. Its mean it secure the data from crack ,when both data and crack are running on the same server. In this algorithm 256 bit block cipher is encrypted with 128 bit key in 10 round .In every round the key generation and algorithm are synchronizes with same clock. This design has been implemented in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 12.1 platform using verilog.

Keywords—AES, Block Cipher ,CHEA , Cipher, DES, FPGA, Key, Data Security, Verilog, Xilinx ISE Design Suite.

References-

[1] M.Pitchaiah, Philemon Deniel , Praveen 2012 "Implementation Of Advanced Encryption Algorithm" International Journal Of Scientific & Engineering Research ISSN 2229-5518.

[2] Behrouz A. Forouzan , "Cryptography and Network Security" TMH.

[3] Data Encryption Standard (DES) ,Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS PUB 46-3)Reaffirmed 1999oct 25

[4] Advanced Encryption Standard , Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 197 Nov 26 2001

[5] Christof Paar.Jan Pelzl "Understanding Cryptography" Springer

[6] Gireesh Kumar P. ,P. Mahesh Kumar 2013 "Implementation Of AES Algorithm Using Verilig " International Journal of Embedded systems ISSN 2249-6556.

[7] Kenekayoro Patrick T. 2010. "The data encryption standard thirty four years cubic mouse: a new device for three-dimensional input. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems .

[8] B.Sujitha , Dr.B.Karthikeyan 2014 "Study, Simulation and Analysis of AES Algorithm" IJIRSET ISO 3249:2007, International conference on engineering technology and science 14.

[9] William Stallings Fifth Edition "Cryptography And Network Security " Pearson Publication

[10] M. Natheera Banu April 2014 "FPGA Based Hardware Implementation Of Encryption Algorithm" IJEAT ISSN :2249- 8958.

[11] Douglas Selent 2010"Advanced Encryption Standard" Rivier Academic Journal Vol. 6 Nov. 2 Fall 2010.

[12] http://www.xilinx.com

[13] Wikipedia

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19.

A Comparative Study of Linearization Techniques of CMOS LNA

Authors: Ch. Anandini, Ram Kumar, F. A. Talukdar

Abstract—this paper presents a comparative study of few linearization techniques of LNA for system like GPS which requires a highly linear LNA. The topology is analysed in terms of noise performance, gain, linearity and impedance matching.

Keywords—Cascode amplifiers, inductive source degeneration, Negative Feedback,Derivative superposition, Modified DS method, Post-linearization technique.

References-

[1] B. Razavi, ―CMOS technology characterization for analog and RF design,‖ IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, pp.268–276, Mar. 1999.

[2] SrinivasJagarapu and R.K. Kavitha, ―A 2.4 GHz Low Noise on VLSI, Communication & Instrumentation (ICVCI) 2011.

[3] B. Toole, C. Plett, and M. Cloutier, ―RF circuit implications of moderate inversion enhanced linear region in MOSFETs,‖IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.I, Fundam.Theory Appl., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 319– 328, Feb.2004.Tavel, P. 2007 Modeling and Simulation Design. AK Peters Ltd.

[4] V. Aparin, G. Brown, and L. E. Larson, ―Linearization of CMOS LNAs via optimum gate biasing,‖ in Proc. IEEE Int. Circuits Syst. Symp., Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 2004, vol. 4, pp. 748– 751.Forman, G. 2003. An extensive empirical study of feature selection metrics for text classification. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 3 (Mar. 2003), 1289-1305.

[5] D. R. Webster, D. G. Haigh, J. B. Scott, and A. E. Parker, ―Derivative superposition—a linearization technique for ultra broadbandsystems,‖in IEE Wideband Circuits Modeling and Tech. Colloq., May 1996, pp.3/1–3/14.

[6] S. Ganesan, E. Sánchez-Sinencio, and J. Silva-Martinez, ―A highly linear low noise amplifier,‖ IEEE Trans. Microw.Theory Tech., vol.54, no. 12, pp. 4079–4085, Dec. 2006.

[7] V. Aparin and L. E. Larson, ―Modified derivative superposition method for linearizing FET low-noise amplifiers,‖ IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 571–581, Feb. 2005.

[8] T.-S. Kim and B.-S.Kim, ―Post-linearization of cascode CMOS LNA using folded PMOS IMD sinker,‖ IEEE Microw. Wireless Comp. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 182–184, Apr. 2006.

[9] H. Zhang, X. Fan, and E. Sánchez-Sinencio, ―A low-power, linearized, ultra-wideband LNA design technique,‖ IEEE J. SolidState Circuits, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 320–330, Feb. 2009.

[10] N. Kim, V. Aparin, K. Barnett, and C. Persico, ―A cellular-band CDMA CMOS LNA linearized using active post-distortion,‖ IEEE J.Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1530–1534, Jul. 2006.

[11] C. Xin and E. Sánchez-Sinencio, ―A linearization technique for RF lownoise amplifier,‖ in Proc. IEEE Int. Circuits Syst. Symp., Vancouver,BC, Canada, May 2004, vol. IV, pp. 313– 316.

[12] Yuan-Kai Chu, Che-Hong Liao, and Huey-Ru Chuang, "5.7 GHz 0.18 /spl mu/m CMOS gain-controlled LNA and mixer for 802.11a WLAN applications," 2003 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, pp.221–224, June 2003.

[13] N. Kim, V. Aparin, K. Barnett, and C. Persico, ―A cellular-band CDMACMOS LNA linearized using active post-distortion,‖ IEEE J.Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1530–1534, Jul. 2006.

[14] Chang, C. P., J. H. Chen, S. H. Hung, C. C. Su, and Y. H. Wang, A novel post linearization technique for fully integrated 5.5 GHz highlinearity LNA," IEEE Int. Innovative Computing, Information and Control Conf., 577-580, Kaohsiung,Taiwan, December 2009

[15] F.A Talukdar, Ram kumar ―Design of 5.5 GHz Highly Linear CMOS Low Noise Amplifier‖ in Lambert Academic Publising 2013.

[16] Ram Kumar F.A Talukdar and Anandini Devi ―Improvement in Linearity of Low Noise Amplifier using Post Distortion technique with Body Biasing‖ IEEE sponsored 1stInternational conference on Microelectronics, Circuit & Systems Micro-2014 Vol. 1 pp 6-9.

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A Review on Performance and Emission Studies of CI Engine Fuelled With Vegetable Oil and Bio-Diesel

Authors: Wasim Akram, S.L.Soni, Anmesh Srivastava

Abstract— Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as “biodiesel,” are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Straight vegetable oil (SVO), an alternative fuel of petroleum diesel, is mainly used to reduce the environmental impact of emission without modifying engines. It was found that the performances mainly torque and brake power of both SVO and biodiesel reduces with increasing blend ratio which can be attributed to lower energy content of SVO. Specific fuel consumption increases for both SVO and bio-diesel compared with diesel fuel. The methyl asters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Besides being a renewable and domestic resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. SVO of rice bran oil (RBO), jatropha, karanja etc. are derived through oil extraction process from respective plant seeds. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine properties, performance and emission of different blends of SVO (RBO and jetropha) and biodiesel (karanja) in comparison to diesel. Results indicate that blends of 25% RBO show results closure to diesel, Thermal efficiency was lower for unheated Jatropha oil compared to heated Jatropha oil and diesel. CO2, CO and HC were higher for Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel. These emissions were found to be close to diesel for preheated Jatropha oil. The engine performance and emissions with biodiesel of Karanja and its blends were comparable to the performance with diesel fuel. The BTE was about 3 - 5% lower with Karanja biodiesel and its blends with respect to diesel. The oxides of nitrogen from Karanja biodiesel and its blends were higher than diesel fuel at all loads and emissions such as CO, smoke density and HC were reduced as compared to diesel.

Keywords- Biodiesel, diesel engine performance, emissions, Trans-esterification, Vegetable oil.

References-

[1] S. Saravanan et al ―Feasibility study of crude rice bran oil as a diesel substitute in a DI-CI engine without modifications‖; Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume XI No. 3 September 2007.

[2] Bhupendra Singh Chauhan et al ―A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fuelled with Karanja biodiesel and its blends‖; B.S. Chauhan et al. / Energy 56 (2013) 1e7.

[3] Deepak Agarwal et al ―Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine‖; D. Agarwal, A.K. Agarwal / Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2314–2323.

[4] Chauhan BS, Kumar N, Cho HM. A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel oil and its blends. Energy 2012;37(1):616-22.

[5] Sahoo PK, Das LM. Combustion analysis of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine. Fuel 2009; 88(6):994e9.

[6] Agarwal AK, Rajamanoharan K. Experimental investigations of performance and emissions of Karanja oil and its blends in a single cylinder agricultural diesel engine. Applied Energy 2009; 86(1):106e12.

[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice_bran_oil

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatropha

[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pongamia_oil

[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production

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21

Applications of Digital Image Processing Accompanied with Morphological Operations and its Limitations

Authors: Shafali Goyal, Reecha Sharma

Abstract — Now a days Digital image processing has become economical in many fields like face recognisation, in forensics, in automobile detection and in military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, more accurate, cheaper and more extensive computation. In this paper, the image processing operations are reviewed to illustrate the basic concepts and to use them in different fields with minor changes in the methodology. we have analyzed the various algorithms used in image processing to understand the basic steps of image extraction. Also we have discussed the role of alignment of camera and the target object i.e. how the position of camera affects the accuracy of results.

Keywords— Image processing, Adaptive image thresholding, image segmentation, morphological operations, defect detection, camera angle alignment.

References-

[1] Aisha Ajmal and Ibrahim M. Hussain , “Vehicle Detection Using Morphological Image Processing Technique.” IEEE pp. 65-68 , 2010.

[2] Dr. Ritu Tiwari, Dr. Anupam Shukla, Chandra Prakash, Dhirender Sharma, Rishi Kumar, Sourabh Sharma, “Face Recognition using morphological method.” IEEE international pp.529-534, 2009.

[3] Shafali Goyal, Reecha Sharma, “Defective key detection in keyboard using image processing techniques.” vol no 2(4c),pp.628-631,2014.

[4] Jagdish Lal Raheja, Radhey Shyam, Jatin Gupta, Umesh Kumar, P Bhanu Prasad,“Facial Gesture Identification using Lip Contours.”pp. 3-7 ,2010.

[5] Lasher, B.; Narayanan, M., "Vision systems-an overview," Northcon/93. Conference Record, vol., no., pp.118, 121, 12-14 Oct 1993

[6] Kwon Lee; Chulhee Lee; Seon-Ae Kim; Young-Hoon Kim, "Fast object detection based on color histograms and local binary patterns," TENCON 2012 - 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,4, 19-22 Nov. 2012

[7] E. Fricke and A. P. Schuls "Design for changeability: Principles to enable changes in systems throughout their entire lifecycle", Syst. Eng. J., vol. 8, no. 4, pp.342 -359 2005.

[8] E. Alderman and J. Elands "Breaking a screening barrier. A novel approach to ultra-high throughput screening", Genetic Eng. News, vol. 18, pp.14 -16 1998

[9] Ospina, E.; Tascon, E.; Valencia, J.; Madrigal, C., "Traffic flow control using artificial vision techniques," Computing Congress (CCC), 2011 6th Colombian , vol., no., pp.1,4, 4-6 May 2011

[10] Ye Zhang; Hongsong Qu; Yanjie Wang, "Adaptive Image Segmentation Based on Fast Thresholding and Image Merging," Artificial Reality and Telexistence--Workshops, 2006. ICAT '06. 16th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.308,311, Nov. 2006

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22

Big Data Security Challenges: Dealing with too Many Issues

Authors: Rashmi N, Uma K M, Jayalakshmi K, Vinodkumar K P

Abstract— Big data is magnified by high volume, high velocity, and high variety information assets. The scale of data and applications grow exponentially, and bring huge challenges of dynamic data monitoring and security protection. Big Data breaches will be big too, with the potential for even more serious reputational damage and legal repercussions than at present. Current technologies of privacy protection are mainly based on static data set, while data is always dynamically changed, including data pattern, variation of attribute and addition of new data. However, securing these large-scale data sets is typically beyond the reach of small businesses and it is increasingly posing challenges even for large companies and institutes. Thus, it is a challenge to implement effective privacy protection in this complex circumstance. Big Data expands the boundaries of existing information security responsibilities and introduces significant new risks and challenges. This paper introduces big data security issues and new Challenges. We discuss how storage and processing big data are affected by security and privacy factor. We also discuss few challenges like Secure computations in distributed programming frameworks, Secure Data Storage and Transactions Logs, Real-time security monitoring, Scalable and compassable privacypreserving data mining and analytics and Cryptographically enforced access control and secure communication.

Keywords- Big Data, Security, Distributed Programming Frameworks, Real-time Security.

References-

[1] Changqing Ji, Yu Li, Wenming Qiu, Uchechukwu Awada, Keqiu Li, “Big data processing in cloud computing environment‖ in International Symposium on Pervasive Systems, Algorithms and Networks 2012.

[2] Disha H. Parekh, Dr. R. Sridaran ,‖An Analysis of Security Challenges in Cloud Computing‖ in International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 4, No.1, 2013.

[3] Jeff Whitworth , Shan Suthaharan ,‖ Security Problems and Challenges in a Machine learning-based Hybrid Big Data Processing Network systems‖.

[4] Big Data Working Group ,‖ Big Data Analytics for Security Intelligence In CLOUD SECURITY ALLIANCE‖ September 2013

[5] Dr.Siddaraju, Rahul M, Sowmya C L, Rashmi K, ―Efficient Analysis of Big Data using MapReduce Framework‖, IJRDET, June 2014.

[6] Jens Dittrich JorgeArnulfo Quian´eRuiz ,‖ Efficient Big Data Processing in Hadoop MapReduce‖.

[7] Jianqing Fan, Fang Han and Han Liu,‖ Challenges of Big Data analysis‖,in National Science Review, 2014.

[8] The Right Tools for Smart Protection A Trend Micro White Paper, ―Addressing Big Data Security Challenges‖, September 2012

[9] Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER) National Conference on Emerging Trends in Technology (NCET-Tech) ISSN No: 2250-3536 Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2012 1

[10] Ashalatha R¹ Faculty of Computer Science, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore, ―A SURVEY ON SECURITY AS A CHALLENGE IN CLOUD COMPUTING‖. E-mail: ashalatha.dsce@gmail.com

[11] Mesra, Ranchi,‖ Big Data Analysis: Challenges and Solutions in International Conference on Cloud, Big Data and Trust 2013, Nov 13-15, RGPV 269

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BIG DATA: Preconditions to Productivity

Authors: Dr. Steve Hallman, DBA, Dr. Michel Plaisent, Jasur Rakhimov, Dr. Prosper Bernard

Abstract--The continuous waves of data flooding our world have created a phenomenon that has attracted businesses to leveraging this information. According to overall research the sheer volume of data generated, stored, and mined for consumer transactions insights has become economically relevant to businesses success, governmental operations, and consumer savvy transactions. The history of previous trends in IT investment and innovation and its impact on competitiveness and productivity strongly suggest that Big Data can have a similar power, namely the ability to transform our lives. The same preconditions that allowed previous waves of IT-enabled innovation to power productivity, i.e., technology innovations followed by the adoption of complementary management innovations, are in place for Big Data, vendors and suppliers of Big Data technology and advanced analytic capabilities to have at least as much ongoing impact on productivity as vendors and suppliers of other kinds of technology.

Keywords—Big Data, Apache Hadoop, RFID data

References-

[1] Apache Storm (2014) Retrieved June 2, 2014 from http://hortonworks.com/hadoop/storm/

[2] Biesdorf, S., Court, D., & Willmont, P. (2013) Big Data: What‘s your plan? McKinsey Quarterly, (2), 40-51

[3] Big Data to Their Advantage. Journal Of Advertising Research, 53 (4), 372-376. Doi: 10.2501/JAR-53-4-372-376

[4] Brands, K. (2014). Big Data and Business Intelligence for Managerial Accountants. Strategic Finance, 96 (6), 64-65

[5] Cloudera Impala (2014) Retrieved June 2, 2014 from http://www.cloudera.com/content/cloudera/en/products-andservices/cdh/impala.html

[6] Fulgoni, G. (2013) Big Data: Friend or Foe of Digital Advertising? Five Ways Marketers Should Use Digital

[7] Jagadish, H. V., Gehrke, J., Labdindis, A., Papakonstantinou, Y., Patel, J. M., Ramakrishnan, R., & Shahabi, C. (2014). Big Data and Its Technical Challenges. Communications of the ACM, 57(7), 86- 94. Doi:10.1145/2611567

[8] McCallum, J. C., Disk Drive Prices, (2013) Retrieved January 10, 2014 from http://www.jcmit.com/diskprice.htm

[9] McGuire, T., Manyika, J, and Chui M., (2012) Why Big Data is the new competitive advantage Retrieved January 25, 2014 from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/strategy/

[10] why-big-data-is-the-new-competitive-advantage#.U13bnqLhI6A Nuan, D & Di Domenico, M. (2013). Market research and the ethics of big data. International Journal of Market Research, 55(4), 2-13.

[11] Patterson, D. L. (2007). Data security still at risk. Communication News 44(2), 8. Retrieved March 6, 2007 from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/24036077/data-securitystill-risk

[12] Presto (2014) Retrieved June 3rd, 2014 from http://prestodb.io/

[13] Ross, J. W., Beath C. M., & Quaadgras, A. (2013) You May Not Need Big Data After All. Harvard Business Review, December Vol 91(12), 90-98.

[14] What is Apache Hadoop Foundation (2012) Retrieved January 5, 2014 from http://hadoop.apache.org/

[15] What is Big Data? (2013) Retrieved January 5, 2014 from http://www.ibm.com/big-data/us/en/

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Semiannual Variation of Geomagnetic Field at Southern and Northern Hemisphere

Authors: Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini

Abstract- This paper represents the seasonal variation of geomagnetic field at Southern (MAITRI) and Northern (TROMSO) Hemisphere. The Indian Antarctic Station MAITRI is located at geomagnetic Lat. (66.030 , 53.210 ) where as TROMSO is at geomagnetic Lat. (66.690 , 102.790 ). We have studied the behaviour of geomagnetic field with respect to geomagnetic storms at both the stations. It was observed that at Southern Hemisphere there is more variation in winter as compared to the summer season, where as in Northern Hemisphere the variations are more in summer as compared to winter. As in the Northern hemisphere the magnetospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in summer and in Southern hemisphere the magnetospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in winter.

Keywords- geomagnetic storms, SSC, magnetospheric plasma turbulization.

References-

[1] Lindsay, G. M., Luhmann, J. G., Russell, C. T., and Gaziz, P. R.: On the sources of interplanetary shocks at 0.72 AU, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 11–17, 1994.

[2] Russell, C. T., Ginskey, M., and Petrinec, S.M.: Sudden impulses at low-latitude stations: Steady state response for northward interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 253–261, 1994a.

[3] Russell, C. T., Ginskey, M., and Petrinec, S. M.: Sudden impulses at low-latitude stations: Steady state response for southward interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 13 403–13 408, 1994b.

[4] Kamide, Yokoyama,: Interplanetary and magnetospheric electric fields during geomagnetic storms: what is more important, steadystatic fields or fluctuating fields?, J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys., 63, 413, 2001.

[5] Tsurutani, B.T., the interplanetary causes of magnetic storms, substorms and geomagnetic quite in space storms, space weather hazards, edited by Daglis, I. A., 103, Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell, 2001.

[6] Huttunen, K.E.J., H.E.J. Koskinen and R.S. Schwenn, Variability of magnetospheric storms driven by different solar wind perturbations, to appear in J. Geophys. Res., 2002.

[7] Turner, N. E., D. N. Baker, T. I. Pulkkinen, J. L. Raeder, J. F. Fennell, and V. K. Jordanova (2001), Energy content in the stormtime ring current, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 19,149–19,156, doi:10.1029/2000JA003025.

[8] Gonzalez, W.D., J.A. Joselyn, Y. Kamide, H.W. Kroehl, G.Rostoker, B.T. Tsurutani and V.M. Vasyliunas, What is a geomagnetic storm?, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5771, 1994.

[9] Araki, T., A physical model of the geomagnetic sudden commencement, in the Solar Wind Sources of Magnetospheric Ultra-Low-Frequency Waves edited by M. J. Engebretson, K. Takahashi, and M. Scholer, 183, 1994.

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25

Software Birthmark Based Theft/Similarity Comparisons of JavaScript Programs

Authors: Swati J. Patel, Tareek M. Pattewar

Abstract—Almost every browser provides an easy way to obtain the source code of JavaScript Programs. Hence it is very important to prevent the copy of the websites so as to protect intellectual property rights of JavaScript developers. Software Birthmark is used to detect the theft/similarity of JavaScript programs. A birthmark is a set of characteristic possessed by a program that uniquely recognizes a program. Birthmark of the software is based on Heap Graph. It is generated by using Google Chrome Developer Tools when the program is in execution. Software’s behavioural structure is demonstrated in the heap graph. It describes how the objects are related to each other to deliver the desired functionality of the website. Our aim is to develop and evaluate a system that can find theft/similarity between websites by using Agglomerative Clustering and Improved Frequent Subgraph Mining. To identify if a website is using the original program’s code or its module, birthmark of the original program is explored in the suspected program’s heap graph. The software is 100 % accurate and finds the theft/similarity between websites. Moreover, it is possible to detect theft/similarity even if the website is obfuscated.

Keywords—Heap graphs, theft identification, dynamic birthmark, agglomerative clustering, improved frequent subgraph mining.

References-

[1] S. Patel and T. Pattewar, Software Birthmark for Theft Detection of JavaScript Programs: A Survey, in Proc. Of International Conference on Recent Trends and Innovations in Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC), Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 29-38, Feb 2014.

[2] Software theft, [accessed on April 14, 2013]. [Online]. Available: http://www.javvin.com/softwareglossary/SoftwareTheft.html

[3] Software piracy, [accessed on April 14, 2013]. [Online]. Available: http://www.fastiis.org/our services/enforcement/software theft/

[4] E. Data, JavaScript dominates EMEA development, Jan 2008, [accessed on April 14, 2013]. [Online]. Available: http://www.evansdata.com/press/viewRelease.php?pressID=127

[5] C. Collberg and C. Thomborson, Software watermarking: models and dynamic embeddings, Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92091, Auckland, New Zealand, Technical Report, 2003.

[6] A. Monden, H. Iida, K. I. Matsumoto, K. Inoue, and K. Torii, Watermarking java programs, in International Symposium of Future Software Technology, Nanjing, China, 1999.

[7] C. Collberg, C. Thomborson, and D. Low, A taxonomy of obfuscating transformations, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, Tech. Rep. 148, 2003.

[8] C. Collberg, E. Carter, S. Debray, A. Huntwork, J. Kececioglu, C. Linn, and M. Stepp, Dynamic path-based software watermarking, in Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI 04), ACM, Ed., New York, pp. 107-118, 2004.

[9] G. Myles and C. Collberg, Detecting software theft via whole program path birthmarks, in Inf. Security 7th Int. Conf. (ISC 2004), Palo Alto, CA, pp. 404-414, September 2004.

[10] G. Myles and C. Collberg, K-gram based software birthmarks, in Symposium on Application Computing (SAC 05), ACM, Ed., pp. 314-318, 2005.

[11] H. Tamada, K. Okamoto, M. Nakamura, A. Monden, and K. I. Matsumoto, Design and evaluation of dynamic software birthmarks based on API calls, Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikomashi, Nara, 6300101 Japan, Technical Report, 2007.

[12] D. Schuler, V. Dallmeier, and C. Lindig, A dynamic birthmark for java, in IEEE/ACM International Conference of Automated Software Engineering (ASE 07), no. 22, New York, pp. 274-283, 2007.

[13] H. Tamada, M. Nakamura, and A. Monden, Design and evaluation of birthmarks for detecting theft of java programs, in IASTED International Conference of Software Engineering, 2004, pp. 569- 575

[14] P. F. Chan, C. K. Hui and S.M. Yiu, Heap graph based software theft detection, IEEE Transaction on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 8, pp. 101-110, January 2013.

[15] P. F. Chan, C. K. Hui and S.M. Yiu, Jsbirth: Dynamic JavaScript birthmark based on the run-time heap, in 2011 IEEE 35th Annual Computer Software and Application Conference (COMPSAC), pp. 407-412, July 2011.

[16] P. F. Chan, C. K. Hui and S.M. Yiu, Dynamic software birthmark for java based on heap memory analysis, in IFIP TC 6/TC 11 Int. Conf. Communication and Multimedia Security (CMS11), SpringerVerlag, Ed., no. 12, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 94-106, 2011.

[17] S. J. Patel and T. M. Pattewar, Software Birthmark Based Theft Detection of JavaScript Programs Using Agglomerative Clustering and Frequest Subgraph Mining, in Proc. Of IEEE International Conference on Embedded Systems (ICES), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 2014.

[18] Swati Patel, Software Birthmark Based Theft/Similarity Comparisons of JavaScript Programs, SES’s R. C. Patel institute of Technology, Shirpur, MS, India, Technical Report, 2014.

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26

In-situ X-ray Diffraction Study of Alumina α-Al2O3 Thermal Behavior

Authors: Houria CHIKH, Fariza SI-AHMED, Arezki AFIR , André PIALOUX

Abstract—We determined the crystalline characteristics of the hexagonal α-alumina phase by X-ray diffraction at high temperatures between 293 and 2308K under dynamic vacuum. Our experimental values allow us to deduce an anisotropy of the ‘c’ direction compared to the ‘a’ direction of approximately 12% in the range of 293K - 1760K: Such an anisotropy is related to internal constraints in the alumina structure which may cause plastic deformation. There is quite a difference in the range 1760K – 2308K : no further anisotropy remains. The perfect isotropic expansion of the alumina cell leads us to conclude the absence of any internal constraint above 1760K. As the anisotropy which characterizes the alumina structure is a direct consequence of the fact that the aluminum atoms occupy two thirds of the octahedral sites in the compact hexagonal subnetwork formed by the oxygen atoms, we believe that the isotropy in question must surely translate an equal occupation for all octahedral sites so that the site contains statistically 2/3 Aluminium atom.

Keywords—Alumina thermal properties, High temperature Xray diffraction, Evolution of the alumina cell lattice parameters depending on the temperature, Alumina in-situ thermal behavior study, Ceramics, Gas solid reaction, Thermal expansion.

References-

[1] S.S.Sharma. 1951. Thermal expansion of crystals. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 339-340.

[2] O.J.Whittemore et N.N.Ault. 1956. Thermal expansion of various ceramic materials to 1500°C. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 39, 443.

[3] H. Kudielka, Thermal expansion of the isotopic mixed crystal components Cr2O3 and α-Al2O3 investigated by means of a SeemannBohlin Camera permitting high intensities, Monatshefte fur Chemie, 103, 72-80.

[4] D.J.Klein. 1959. Thermal expansion of Al2O3, BeO, MgO, B4C, SiC, and TiC above 1000°C. Journal of the American ceramic society, vol 42 (6), 300-305.

[5] M.Halvarsson, V.Langer et S.Vuorinen. 1995. Determination of the thermal expansion of K-Al2O3 by high temperature X-RD. Surface and coatings technology, vol76-77 (1), 358-362.

[6] C.M.Wai et S.G.Hutchison. 1990. A thermodynamic study of the carbothermic reduction of alumina in plasma. Metallurgical Transactions B, volume 21B, 406-407.

[7] P.J.Baldock, W.E.Spinder et T.W.Baker. 1968. An X-ray study of the variation of the lattice parameters of alumina, magnesia and thoria up to 2000°C. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Ceramic Division, Harwell - Berkshire – R5674.

[8] A. Pialoux et M. Dodé. 1971. Recherches aux rayons X à haute température, sur les réactions entre carbone et oxydes réfractaires. Rev. Int. Hautes Temp. Réfract. 8, 155-160.

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[11] W.E.Lee et K.P.D.Lagerlof. 1985. Structural and electron diffraction data for sapphire (α-Al2O3). Journal of electron microscopy technique, 2, 247-258.

[12] F.R.Feret, D.Roy et C.Boulanger. 2000. Determination of alpha and beta alumina in ceramic alumina by X-ray diffraction. Spectrochimica Acta, part B, volume 55 (7), 1051-1061.

[13] F.Al-Mashta, N.Al-Derzi, A.Al-Saadi et N.Al-Dadhistani. 1988. Preparation of aluminas. The effect of heat treatment on the properties of alumina. Journal of Thermal Analysis, 34, 269-277.

[14] A.F.Wells. 1975. Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Clarendon Press, 4°edition, Oxford.

[15] G.Chaudron, F.Trombe. 1973. les hautes températures et leurs utilisations en physique et en chimie. Masson Compagnie Editeurs, Paris, tome 2.

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27

Server for Remote Generation of Wake On LAN Packets in the LAN

Authors: Gencho Stoitsov, Zhelyan Guglev

Abstract—The article offers a solution for using the technology Wake On Local Area Network (WOL), based on a hardware device with multiples low cost and power consumption compared to a standard computer system. This implementation was based to the simplicity of the WOL protocol and low requirements for computing power.

Keywords—EEPROM memory, ENC28J60, Local Area Network, MAC, Microprocessor, MPFS2, OSI model, PIC18F4620, Regular expression, Wake on LAN, WOL packets.

References-

[1] AMD, "Magic Packet Technology," November 1995. [Online]. Available: http://support.amd.com/TechDocs/20213.pdf. [Accessed 04 May 2014]

[2] Cisco, "Internetworking Basics," 1998. [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/cpress/cc/td/cpress/fund/ith/ith01gb.htm#xtoci d166844. [Accessed 04 May 2014].

[3] IEEE, "History of Ethernet," 22 May 2013. [Online]. Available: http://standards.ieee.org/events/ethernet/history.html. [Accessed 11 May 2014].

[4] Microchip, "AN1120 - Ethernet Theory of Operation," 02 January 2008. [Online]. Available: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/01120a.pdf. [Accessed 11 May 2014].

[5] Microchip, "AN1264 - Integrating Microchip Libraries with a RealTime Operating System," 03 March 2009. [Online]. Available: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/01264a.pdf. [Accessed 29 May 2014].

[6] Microchip, "Microchip ENC28J60 Stand-Alone Ehternet Controller with SPI Interface," 26 October 2012. [Online]. Available: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/39662e.pdf. [Accessed 05 May 2014].

[7] Microchip, "Microchip PIC18F2525/2620/4525/4620 Data Sheet," 02 January 2008. [Online]. Available: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/39626e.pdf. [Accessed 05 May 2014].

[8] Microchip, "Microchip v2013-06-15 TCPIP Stack Help," 2013.

[9] Microchip, "MPLAB C18 Getting Started," Microchip, 2005.

[10] Microchip, "SPI Overview and Use of the PICmicro Serial Peripheral Interface," [Online]. Available: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/spi.pdf. [Accessed 17 May 2014].

[11] Mozilla, "JavaScript," 02 June 2014. [Online]. Available: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript. [Accessed 19 May 2014].

[12] Network Sorcery, Inc, "DHCP, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol," [Online]. Available: http://www.networksorcery.com/enp/protocol/dhcp.htm. [Accessed 01 June 2014].

[13] Network Sorcery, Inc, "HTTP, HyperText Transfer Protocol," [Online]. Available: http://www.networksorcery.com/enp/protocol/http.htm. [Accessed 01 June 2014].

[14] Network Sorcery, Inc, "TCP, Transmission Control Protocol," [Online]. Available: http://www.networksorcery.com/enp/protocol/tcp.htm. [Accessed 01 June 2014].

[15] Network Sorcery, Inc, "UDP, User Datagram Protocol," [Online]. Available: http://www.networksorcery.com/enp/protocol/udp.htm. [Accessed 01 June 2014].

[16] Oracle, "Application Architecture," Oracle, 2002. [Online]. Available: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/B10501_01/server.920/a96524/c07dstpr.ht m. [Accessed 12 June 2014].

[17] Stoitsov, G. (2010). Types of addresses and levels of use in the TCP/IP protocol stack, REMIA 2010, Plovdiv

[18] W3C, "Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Snapshot 2010," 12 May 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS/. [Accessed 17 May 2014].

[19] W3C, "HTML5 differences from HTML4," 28 May 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.w3.org/TR/html5-diff/. [Accessed 17 May 2014].

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[21] WHATWG, „HTML Living Standard,― 11 June 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/currentwork/multipage/introduction.html#introduction. [Accessed 12 June 2014].

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28

Control of Nitrogen Pickup in Steel at Continuous Casting Using Buckingham PI Theorem

Authors: Rajendra.T, Rachappa Kadli, Anil Kumar.S

Abstract- Steels are essentially alloy of iron and carbon. Some of alloying elements Cr, Mo, Ni, V, Ti etc are added to steel in significant amount to improve required steel Properties. Steels may contain some other elements such as Al, Si, S, P and some of gasses like N2, H2, and O2 are called impurities, which are not added specially for purpose but are inevitably present because of their association in the process steel making. This deteriorates the required properties of steel. Hence it is necessary to control these impurities during steel making and casting process. However due to inevitable conditions H2 and O2 cannot be controlled at continuous slab caster but can be controlled during making of steel at primary and secondary steelmaking process. For N2 pick up in steel, there are three points where we can exercise control to certain extent to reduce its pick up , one is at primary and secondary steelmaking process and at continuous caster. This paper includes one os techniques to reduce N2pick up at continuous caster.

Keywords- Nitrogen Pickup, Process capability, Buckingham pi theorem, Taguchi method

References-

[1] A. Ghosh, Secondary Steelmaking Principles and Applications, CRC Press, 2001.

[2] C.G. Interrante, “Basic Aspects of the Problems of Hydrogen in Steels,” Proceedings of the First International Conference on Current Solutions to Hydrogen Problems in Steels, Washington, D.C., Nov. 1–5, 1982, pp. 3–17.

[3] R.J. Fruehan, “Gases in Metals,” Clean Steel Course, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2003.

[4] S. Misra, R.P. Stone, M. Kan and R.J. Fruehan, “Hydrogen and Nitrogen Pickup From Ladle Additions,” Iron & Steel Technology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2006, pp. 236–245.

[5] S. Misra and R.J. Fruehan, “Nitrogen Pickup During Tapping of Liquid Steel,” AISTech 2004 Conference Proceedings, 2004, pp. 1057–1069.

[6] R.G. Ward, An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Iron and Steelmaking, The English Language Book Society and Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1965.

[7] R.D. Pehlke and J.F. Elliott, “Solubility of Nitrogen in Liquid Iron Alloys. 1. Thermodynamics,” Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, Vol. 218, 1960, pp. 1088–1101.

[8] R.D. Pehlke and J.F. Elliott, “Solubility of Nitrogen in Liquid Iron Alloys. 2. Kinetics,” Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, Vol. 227, 1963, pp. 844–855.

[9] T. Choh and M. Inouye, “Rate of Absorption of Nitrogen in Molten Iron Containing Surface-Active Elements,” Tetsu to Hagane, Vol. 54 (1), 1968, pp. 19–34.

[10] R.J. Fruehan and L.J. Martonik, “The Rate of Absorption of Nitrogen Into Liquid Iron Containing Oxygen and Sulfur,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 11B, 1980, pp. 615–621.

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29

Characterization of Graphite from Sama-Borkono Area of Bauchi State-Nigeria

Authors: Mohammed A. M., El-Nafaty U. A., Bugaje I. M.

Abstract— Nigeria is blessed with so many minerals but there is little or no attention paid in explorations of these minerals. The only resources that attract the attention of Nigerians and Nigerian government is crude oil which is depleting fast and its exploration has advent effect on the environment. Many States that are none oil producing suffered from low income despite the abundant minerals deposit in their states. Bauchi State is one of these states that considered to be poor but is blessed with more than ten solid minerals among them graphite. In this research raw graphite was collected from Sama-Borkono (SB) in Warji Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria. It was beneficiated, using froth floatation method, and characterized and found to be of high grade and purity. The carbon contents were found to be 46.58 and 95.42.wt% before and after beneficiation respectively. This purity is acceptable for many end uses such production of lubricants, fuel cell bipolar plates, refractories atc. TGA and SEM were used to investigate the thermal stability and micro structure of the mineral. The impurities removed from the graphite were characterized and found to have high percentage silica (81.2% SiO2 ) which is very useful in the production of Portland cement. Both the pure graphite and its byproducts are very useful hence the graphite can be very viable for exploration and commercialization.

Keywords— Graphite, Sama-Borkono, Warji, Bauchi State, Beneficiation, Froth floatation, Tailings, Fixed carbon content.

References-

[1] Kawatra S. K. (2011), ―Fundamental principles of froth floatation‖, SME Mining Engineering Hand book (P. Darling, ed), Littleton, CO, SME, Vol. 2, Pp1517-1531

[2] RMRDC. (2010), Non-Metallic Mineral Endowments in Nigeria; online edition (Accessed February 2014-02-16, 10:00 pm).

[3] Sarat Ch. B., Manash R. D., Chandan T., Dipak B., and Pinaki S. (2010). Characterization of graphite deposits of Arunachal Pradesh: Proceedings of the XI International Seminar on Mineral Processing Technology (MPT) Pp 9-15

[4] Schulze, D.J., Valley, J.W., Viljoen, K.S., Stiefenhofer, J., Spicuzza, M., (1997). Carbon isotope composition of graphite in mantle eclogites. Journal of Geology 105, 379– 386

[5] Shengelia, D.M., Akhvlediani, R.A., Ketskhoveli, D.N., (1979). The graphite geothermometer. Doklady Academii Nauk SSSR 235, 132– 134.

[6] Slodkevich, V.V., (2009); Graphite paramorphs after diamond. International Geology Reviews 25, 497–514.

[7] Strens, R.G.J., (2002). The graphite deposit of Seathwaite in Borrowdale, Cumberland. Geological Magazine 102, 393– 406.

[8] Subham M. (2013). Expanded graphite fortified magnesia-carbon refractories: fabrication and properties. Department of Ceramic Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela – 769008 Odisha, India

[9] Tagiri, M., (2007). A measurement of the graphitizing-degree by the X-ray powder diffractometer. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists 76, 345–352.

[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauchi_State. Retrieved on May 10, 2014.

[11] http://www.google.it/patents/WO2004002738A1. Retrieved on June 24, 2014.

[12] http://www.mineralszone.com/minerals/graphite.html. Retrieved on July 9,2014

[13] http://www.daiwomining.com/graphiteprocessing. Retrieved on August 12, 2014

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30

Implementation of Wire Sensor Network using MATLAB Simulator

Authors:Nisha Yadav, Sunil Kumar Yadav

Abstract– In this paper work, a fault analysis based approach is presented to perform the target coverage in wireless sensor network. The presented approach is effective enough to provide the effective covers for these target nodes. These covers are fault tolerant as well as provide the energy effective solution for the network. The obtained results show that the pretend work has improved the network life and reduce the fault chances while targeting the sink nodes.

Keyword- WSN, LEECH, MANET, ESPDA, CLUSTER

References-

[1] GholamAli Yaghoubi," Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks by Using Depth-First Search and Genetic Algorithm".

[2] Nauman Aslam," Distributed Coverage and Connectivity in Three Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks".

[3] Yinian Mao," Coordinated Sensor Deployment for Improving Secure Communications and Sensing Coverage".

[4] Ashwinkumar Badanidiyuru," Approximating Low-Dimensional Coverage Problems",.

[5] Vikram P. Munishwar," Coverage Management for Mobile Targets in Visual Sensor Networks".

[6] Vijay Chandrasekhar," Localization in Sensor Networks — Survey and Challenges"

[7] Muzammil Hussain," Distributed Localization in Cluttered environments"

[8] Melike Erol," Localization with Dive’N’Rise (DNR) Beacons for Acoustic Sensor Networks", UWNet’07,

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