Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2014

Page No.

Simulations of Renewable Energy System and Environmental Impact for Qena Al-Gadida City

Authors: Abdelrahman Atallah Z. Saleh, Loai S. Nasrat, Barakat M. Hasaneen, Ibrahim A.I. Nassars

Abstract— This study presents Cost and Environmental matching of Renewable Energy Systems for the new cites in Egypt by making economic evaluation of photovoltaic systems with different renewable energy systems to choose the best economic system with taking into consideration the environmental impact, The selected city "Qena Al-Gadida" City, New Urban Communities Authority, Egypt.

Keywords— Wind, Turbine, Photovoltaic, Module, Battery, Diesel Generator, Fuel Cell, Simulation, Hybrid, Renewable, Energy, System, Environmental, Impact, Homer.


[1] El Badawe, M.; Iqbal, T.; Mann, G.K., "Optimization and a comparison between renewable and non-renewable energy systems for a telecommunication site," Electrical & Computer Engineering (CCECE), 2012 25th IEEE Canadian Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,5, April 29 2012-May 2 2012.

[2] El Badawe, M. Iqal T George M ―Optimal sizing and modeling of a hybrid energy system for a remote telecommunication facility ‖ presented at IEEE 21 NECEC conference St ohn‘s NF 2011.

[3] Ross M, Hidalgo R, Abbey C, Joos G.; "Analysis of Energy Storage sizing and technologies," Electric Power andEnergy Conference (EPEC), 2010 IEEE , vol., no., pp.1-6, 2527Aug.2010.

[4] P. Nema et al ―A current and future state of art development of hybrid energy system using wind and PV-solar: A review.‖ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13 (2009) 2096–2103.

[5] Wind turbine manufacturer [Online]. Available at http://msmelectric.com/montage/catalog/.

[6] Photovoltaic panels manufacturer [Online]. Available at http://www.wholesalesolar.com/products.

[7] Manufacture and worldwide distributor of long-lasting deep-cycle batteries [Online]. Available at www.trojanbattery.com.

[8] BolfazlShiroudi, Seyed Reza HosseiniTaklimi ―Demonstration project of the solar hydrogen energy system locTaleghan-Iran: Technical-economic assessments‖ World Renewable Energy Congress 2011- Sweden.

[9] Souissi Ahmed, Hasnaoui Othman, SallamiAni ‗Optimal Sizing of a Hybrid System of Renewable Energy for a Reliable Load Supply without Interruption‘ European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.45 No.4 (2010), pp.620-629.

[10] NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy [Online]. Available at http://www.nasa.gov.

[11] Sureshkumar, Manoharan, P.S.; Ramalakshmi,(2012) ―Economic cost analysis of hybrid renewable energy system using HOMER‖ IEEE- International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM -2012) March 30, 31, 2012.

[12] Hybrid Optimization Model for electric Renewable Energy (HOMER), http://www.homerenergy.com/download.asp .

[13] Nurul Arina bte Abdull Razak, Muhammad Murtadha bin Othman, Member, IEEE, Ismail Musirin, Member, IEEE, ‗Optimal Sizing and Operational Strategy of Hybrid Renewable Energy System Using HOMER‘ The 4th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conf. (PEOCO2010), Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA: 23-24 June 2010.

[14] Anwari, M.; Rashid, M. I M; Muhyiddin, H. T M; Ali, A. R M, "An evaluation of hybrid wind/diesel energy potential in Pemanggil Island Malaysia," Power Engineering and Renewable Energy (ICPERE), 2012 IEEE- International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,5, 3-5 July 2012.


Directional Location Finding of Intelligent Tags

Authors: Dr. JKR Sastry, Dr. A. Vinya Babu

Abstract-- Finding the location of a TAG is very important especially when objects to which the tags are attached are to be tracked. Tracking of the objects is a complicated process especially when there is fall down of the objects in the unknown places during airline crashers, atmospheric disasters etc. The objects must be tracked accurately, just finding the distance of an object from a master mobile device is not sufficient. It is also necessary to find the location of the object in relation to directions (North, North- East, West, South-West etc.,) in addition to the distance of the object from the master (hand held mobile device) accurately. In this paper a novel method has been presented using which the location of an object can be accurately determined



[1 ] Kirti Chawla and Gabriel Robins, 2011, "An RFID-based object localization framework", Int. J. Radio Frequency Identification Technology and Applications, Vol. 3, Iss. 2, Pg. 20-28

[2 ] Hakan Koyuncu, Shuang Hua Yang, 2010, "A Survey of Indoor Positioning and Object Locating Systems" IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 10, Iss. 5, Pg. 300-310

[3 ] Starlink Incorporated, 1999, "DGPS Explained", http://www.starlinkdgps.com/dgpsexp.htm

[4 ] R.Want, A.Hopper, V. Falcao and J. Gibbons, 1992, "The active Badge location system", ACM Transactions on Information systems, Vol. 40, Iss. 1, Pg. 91-102

[5 ] P. Bahl, V. N. Padmanabhan, 1999, "User Location and Tracking in an In-Building Radio Network", Microsoft Research Technical Report: MSR-TR-99-12,

[6 ] Harter A and A. Hopper, 1994, "A Distributed Location System for the Active Office", IEEE ,Network

[7 ] Robert J. Orr, Gregory D. Abowd, 2000, "The Smart Floor: A Mechanism for Natural User Identification and Tracking", GVU Technical Report GIT-GVU-00-02 (full paper)

[8 ] John Krumm, Steve Harris, Brian Meyers, Barry Brumitt, Michael Hale, Steve Shafer, 2000, "Multi camera lti-person tracking easy living", Third IEEE International Workshop on Visual Surveillance

[9 ] Erin-Ee-Lin Lau, Boon-Giin Lee, Seung-Chul Lee, Wan-Young Chung, 2008, "Enhanced RSSI-Based High Accuracy real-Time User Location Tracking System for Indoor and Outdoor Environments", International Journal on smart sensing and intelligent systems, Vol. 1, Iss. 2, Pg. 534-538

[10 ] T. S. Chou and J. W. S. Liu, 2007, "Design and Implementation of RFID-Based Object Locator", "Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Technical Report No. TR-IIS-06-014",

[11 ] JKR Sastry, N. Venkataram, Ms. P Sahithi Ramya, L.S.S Reddy, 2012-3, "On Locating Intelligent TAGS" IFRSA International Journal of Electronics Circuits and Systems, Vol. 1, Iss. 2

[12 ] JKR Sastry, N. Venkataram, Ms. P Sahithi Ramya, 2012-4, "Software Architecture for Implementation of Location Management in Intelligent TAGS", International Transactions on Electrical, Electronics and Communication engineering, Vol. 2, Iss. 3

[13 ] F. Forno, G. Malnati and G. Portelli, 2005, "Design and implementation of a Bluetooth ad hoc network for indoor positioning", Software, IEEE proceedings, Vol. 152, Iss. 5, Pg. 234-242


Implementation of Caesar Cipher and Chaotic Neural network by using MATLAB Simulator

Authors: Jitender Singh, Shyam Sunder Yadav

Abstract - Today as every information is in form of electronic data. The security of data is increased due frequent attacks by outsiders. So, there is a need to secure this information by using cryptography. Cryptography is a technique to make information unreadable for unauthorized users. Various algorithms are used for cryptography to convert original information. In this paper we are going to implement encryption and decryption using Caesar cipher and a brief case study of chaotic neural network.

Keywords-- CNN, Symmetric key, Asymmetric key, Hashes, ANN, Nervous, Decipher


[1] M. E. Smid and D. K. Branstad, “The Data Encryption Standard: Past and Future,” Proceedings of The IEEE, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 550-559, 1988.

[2] "An Introduction to Neural network" by Ben Krose and Patrick van der Smagt Eighth editionNovember 1996.

[3] http://www.wikipedia.org

[4] "Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach" by Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig.

[5] “Design and Realization of A New Chaotic Neural Encryption/Decryption Network” by Scott Su, Alvin Lin, and JuiCheng Yen.

[6] http://www.wikipedia.org

[7] C. J. Kuo and M. S. Chen, “A New Signal Encryption Technique and Its Attack Study,” IEEE International Conference on Security Technology, Taipei, Taiwan


Multi output Fly back Converter with Switching/Linear Post Regulators

Authors: Naresh K M, Umavathi M, Mohan H R

Abstract— In high power pulsed radar transmitter the gridded TWT is used as main power amplifier, the grid control includes the grid positive and grid negative power supplies, which control the beam ON and OFF of TWT. The negative voltage is used to maintain the TWT in an off state (bias), while positive voltage is used to turn on the TWT (drive). The grid supplies are referenced to cathode and thus float at high potentials making the design of these converters challenging, thermally as well as electrically. In this paper, an approach is presented that is easy to use, low cost & efficient. Preliminary work done to realize the prototype hardware & its results are also presented. The input of the converter is a regulated 28V DC. The prototype is realized using a free running multi output fly back converter operating at 100 KHz in CCM mode. The isolation requirement between the primary & secondary is achieved using a transformer realized with ETD core & moulding it using solid encapsulate. Multiple secondary outputs provide for grid supplies as well as low voltage supplies for drive & protection requirements. The switching/linear post regulators are proposed for maintaining necessary load regulation on all the outputs. The converter is over current protected, using pulse by pulse current limiting at the primary. The PWM technique based on the IC UC28025 is used for the fly back converter.

Keywords--Fly back converter, TWT (Travelling wave tube), linear post regulator, switching buck regulators, snubber)


[1] I. Pressman, “Switching power supply design”. McGraw-Hill.

[2] H. D. Torresan, D. G. Holmes, and I. Shraga, “Auxiliary power supplies for high voltage converter systems,” IEEE 35th Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2004, pp. 645 – 651.

[3] Daniel W. Hart, Introduction to Power Electronics, Prentice Hall, 1997.

[4] Ned Mohan, Tore M Undeland, William P. Robbins, „Power Electronics Converter, Applications, and Design, 3rd EDITION Wiley India Edition, 2011.

[5] Abraham I. Pressman, Keith Billings, Taylor Morey, „Switching Power Supply Design, Mc Graw Hill, 3rd Edition 2009.


Database Integration and Quality Services of MCD: A Study Based On MCD Officials Perception

Authors: Dr. Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Vilender Kumar

Abstract--In 21st century, mass customization and changing market environment forces organizations to migrate from rigid procedures to platform that offers many online services to something more stable, transparent, speedy and reliable manner. MCD is a service provider organization and providing many different online services to citizens but its service delivery time can be more improved by real time information updates in databases. This paper would highlight and focus about work to identify the disintegrated nature of data flow in functioning of various departments of MCD by getting feedback to MCD officials those who are practically using software applications. Objective is to integrate all data of various departments for information sharing in the MCD for better coordination, control and communication to offer quality services to citizens by implementing ERP in future.

Keywords--Information sharing, Database, Inter department communications


[1] Brehm L and Markus M L (2000), The Divided Software Life Cycle of ERP Packages, available at : Proceedings of the 1st Global Information Technology Management (GITM) World Conference, Memphis (Tennessee, USA), June 11- 13, 2000, pp. 43-46.

[2] Bhatnagar S (2002), E-government: Lessons from Implementation in Developing Countries, available at: www.iimahd.ernet.in/~subhash/pdfs/RDDAutumn2002.pdf, Published in Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 24, UNCRD, Autumn 2002.

[3] Batini C, Lenzerini M and Navathe S B (1986), A Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Database Schema Integration C. available at: ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 18, No. 4, December 1986.

[4] Guntamukkala Vamsidhar , H. Joseph Wen and J. Michael Tarn (2006), An empirical study of selecting software development life cycle models, available at : Human Systems Management 25 (2006) 265–278 IOS Press.

[5] Gupta Sanjay Kumar, Kumar Vilender, Chhabra Susheel (2012), A WINDOW VIEW ON PROSPECTS OF ERP IMPLEMENTATION IN MUNICIPAL CORPORATION OF DELHI, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2012, pp.252-260

[6] http://www.mcdonline.gov.in

[7] Reddy M P, Prasad B E, Gupta A and Reddy M G (1994), Methodology for Integration of Hetrogenous Databases, available at: IEEE Transaction of Knowledge and Data Engineering, Volume 6, No.6, December 1994.


Education Management Impact on Learner & Society

Authors: Monika Malik, Anil Kharb

Abstract--The process of reviewing the functioning of school governing bodies is a necessary and crucial one. It is believed that this review will contribute towards strengthening our democracy as well as towards transformation in the education system as a whole. This paper appraises Educational management functioning by looking at three areas: development of School policies, raising funds and managing school finances, and appointment of Educators. The paper argues that school governance functions should be followed by proper management. Management is the Art/Science of: - Getting work done, with the help of other people, within the given budget, within the given deadlines. Management as an academic discipline refers to, substantive body of knowledge of concepts, theories, laws and applications in practice. Educational management should assure that sound policies, goals and objectives are formulated in a given school and those methods are determined for the achievement of these objectives. The paper recommends that management in educational institutes should procure the resources necessary for the achievement of the objectives, organize and coordinate the activities of the school with the prime function of achieving the objectives of the school with maximum efficiency and effectiveness, influence and stimulate the human resources available, must integrate the school and its activities into the set-up of society and last but not least evaluate the schools activities in accordance with the plans made. In a democratic country like ours, educational management is a necessity. The purpose of educational management is to bring pupils and teachers under such conditions as will more successfully promote the end of education. Superior educational management, in fact, is basic to the satisfactory functioning of democracy. Sir Graham Balfour writes very aptly, "the purpose of educational management is to enable the right pupils to receive the right education from the right teachers, at a cost within the means of the state, which will enable pupils to profit by their learning." Underlying all the efforts of the Educational Management function is a vision of quality education. Our attempts in the Foundation are to enhance the quality of education through various interventions that are not programmatic but operational-strengthening in nature. Our focus is on people development; our attempt is to change their perspectives, attitudes and values which help them set their own goals for improving the system. Developments in education have brought forth focus on new concerns, emergence of comprehensive infrastructure, up gradation in the quality of instructional programs, etc. Right from policies to the evaluation everything started changing with many flaws, challenges and gifts. We will study in this paper many defects creeping into educational management we should be aware of, recommendations, need, strategies and challenges in front of educational management.



[1 ] Ryan & Cooper (1995). Those who can, teach; Houghton Mifflin Company; U.S.A.

[2 ] Kalra, Alka (1997). Efficient School Management & Role of Principals; A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.

[3 ] Chand & Prakash (1997). Advanced Educational Administration; Kanishka Publishers, New Delhi.

[4 ] Deshmukh & Nayak (2011). Education Management; Himalaya Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

[5 ] Chauhan (2012). Educational Management; Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd., Noida.


Improvement in Fingerprint Recognition Using Delaunay Technique

Authors: Ankita, IqbaldeepkaurAbstract— Fingerprint recognition is basic method used for identification in biometric system. Now days as collections of fingerprints is increasing day by day then the technique also available in market to face problems. There are many techniques available that are used for recognition of fingerprints. There are some kinds of restrictions on degree of freedom with some unacceptable error rates. In this paper we are going to represent improvement in Delaunay technique for fingerprint recognition using histogram technique. We also add the technique Morphological operation for binarisation and thinning of image. Neighbourhood operation performs to extract the feature of image. So in conclusion we define that enhancement provide results better than existing technique.

Keywords— Fingerprint Recognition, Delaunay Technique, Morphological Operation, Neighbourhood Operation.


[1] Arun Ross, Anil Jain, ―Information fusion in biometrics‖, Pattern Recognition Letters 24 (2003) 2115–2125.

[2] Jinwei Gu, Jie Zhou, and Chunyu Yang, ―Fingerprint Recognition by Combining Global Structure and Local Cues‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1952 – 1964, (2006).

[3] V. Vijaya Kumari and N. Suriyanarayanan, ―Performance Measure of Local Operators in Fingerprint Detection‖, Academic Open Internet Journal, vol. 23, pp. 1-7, (2008).

[4] Raju Sonavane and B. S. Sawant, ―Noisy Fingerprint Image Enhancement Technique for Image Analysis: A Structure Similarity Measure Approach‖, Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 7 no. 9, pp. 225-230, (2007).

[5] Hartwing Fronthaler, Klaus kollreider, and Josef Bigun, ―Local Features for Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction in Fingerprints‖, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 17, no, 3, pp. 354- 363, (2008).

[6] Bhupesh Gour, T. K. Bandopadhyaya and Sudhir Sharma, ―Fingerprint Feature Extraction using Midpoint Ridge Contour Method and Neural Network‖, International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 8, no, 7, pp. 99-109, (2008).

[7] Mana Tarjoman, and Shaghayegh Zarei, ―Automatic Fingerprint Classification using Graph Theory‖, Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 30, pp. 831-835, (2008).

[8] T. Uz, G. Bebis, A. Erol, and S. Prabhakar. ―Minutiae based template synthesis and matching for fingerprint authentication‖, Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 113(9):979–992, 2009..

[9] Shlomo Greenberg, Mayer Aladjem, Daniel Kogan and Itshak Dimitrov, ―Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Filtering Techniques‖, presented at 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2000.

[10] Raymond Thai. \Fingerprint Image Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction". Technical report, The University of Western Australia


Intensification of Execution of Frequent Item-Set Algorithms

Authors: Ritu, Jitender Arora

Abstract— Data mining is an important area for the researcher to do more work in advance. There are huge amount of data in organization which need to organize in a pattern that make it easy to discover. Knowledge discovering in data mining (KDD) is an important process which provide a way to access data in easy way using clustering, classification and association rules. So in our work we are going to implement APRIORI algorithm and FP-Growth algorithm. Main propose of our work is to improve in FPGrowth algorithm and compare with both.

Keywords— Data Mining, Apriori Algorithm, FPAlgorithm, Extended FP-Growth.


[1] Han J W, Kamber M. Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques. SanFrancisco: CA. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.2001:2~4.

[2] Goethals B., “Survey on Frequent Pattern mining,”MANUSCRIPT, 2003.

[3] S. Kotsiantis, D. Kanellopoulos, Association Rules Mining: A Recent Overview, GESTS International Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.32 (1), 2006, pp.71-82.

[4] Said A., Dr. Dominic P., Dr. Abdullah A., “A Comparative Study of FP- Growt Variations ” Proc. IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.9 No.5 ( 2009).

[5] Bodon F. “A fast apriori implementation”. In Goethals B. and Zaki M.J., editors, Proceedings of the IEEE ICDM Workshop on Frequent Itemset Mining Implementation (FIMI’03), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Melbourne, Florida, USA, Vol. 90,( 2003).


A New Era in Wireless Technology using Light-Fidelity

Authors: Jitender Singh, Vikash

Abstract – Li-Fi is using visible light instead of radio waves for communication. This new wireless technology can save a large amount of electricity by transmitting data through the light bulbs. In an age where we face a challenge of data congestion in the free air medium, where we strive hard to squeeze in all the data in the allocated spectrum. Something we generally use every day, there is not any area where we do not use light. With this emerging technology we can use all the light around us that we produce to transmit data. .Let us consider the amount of dependency that we have in the present world on the use of cell phones or laptops or the internet it is a need of the present world that we check alternate ways to transmit all this huge amount of data we generally use. By flickering the light from a single LED, any change a human eye can detect, they can transmit far more data than a cellular tower using SIM OFDM technique-- and do it in a way that's more efficient, secure and widespread. In this paper we are going to compare the existing Wi-Fi technology and newly adopted Li-fi wireless technology.

Keywords- Wi-Fi, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Modulation, SIM OFDM, Visible Light, SCP, PPM, FSK


[1] http://newtechnology22.blogspot.in/2012/11/li-fi-tomorrows technology.html

[2] http://www.reportlinker.com/p01083658/Visible-LightCommunication-VLC-Li-Fi-Technology-Free-Space-Optics-FSOMarket--By-Component-LED-Image-Sensor-Opto-couplersApplication-Indoor-Networking-Underwater-CommunicationLocation-Based-Service-ITS-Geography.html

[3] Dobroslav Tsonev, Sinan Sinanovic and Harald Haas focusing their paper on” Enhanced Subcarrier Index Modulation (SIM) OFDM Email: {dtsonev,s.sinanovic, h.haas}@ed.ac.uk

[4] http://www.wikipedia.com;

[5] Tsonev, D., Sinanovi´c, “Novel Unipolar Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (U-OFDM).

[6] Research paper of Afgani, M., Haas, H., Elgala, H., and Knipp, D.is focusing on the, “Visible Light Communication Using OFDM,”

[7] http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/28/tech/lifi-haas- innovation.

[8] Visilink, ―Visible Light Communication Technology for Near‐Ubiquitous Networking‖ White Paper, January 2012.

[9] http://beyondweblogs.com/what-is-li-fi-is-this-replacing- Wi-Fi/

[10] Technopits.blogspot.comtechnology.cgap.org /2012/01/11/a-li-fiworld/


Effect of Nozzle Holes and Turbulent Injection on Diesel Engine Performance

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Kullaya Swamy K B

Abstract —In diesel engines the Analysis of fuel spray with various injection orientations has high influence on engine performance as well as exhaust gas emissions. The fuel injector orientation plays very important role in fuel air mixing. A single cylinder four stroke DI diesel engine with fuel injector having multi-hole nozzle injector is considered for the analysis. The geometry of the diesel fuel injection nozzle and fuel flow characteristics in the nozzle significantly affects the processes of fuel atomization, combustion and formation of pollutant emissions in a diesel engine. The objective of the research was to find the proper model to be used for fast analysis of existing nozzle geometry. Several models of the nozzle were made to increase further atomization and break down of fuel droplets into fine small molecules. The results were compared with the results of measurements at steady state conditions and fuel injection characteristics are required to deal effectively with major diesel engine design problem achieving sufficiently rapid fuel-air mixing rates to complete the fuel burning Process in the time available. In this experiment it has been investigated the effect of injector nozzle holes and models created such as fins for fuel spray on the performance of diesel engine such as fuel consumption and fuel inengine cylinder the analysis of a swirl diesel engine research also reveals the effects of swirl in combustion chamber of a diesel engine depending on the shape, angle, and area of the jet passage, effects of the pressure, heat release HC, and CO concentrations.

Keywords— Nozzle holes, Emission analysis, Swirl, Turbulence, HC and CO.


[1] Kato, M., Kano, H., Date, K., Oya, T. and Niizuma, K. (1997). Flow Analysis in Nozzle Hole in Consideration of Cavitation. SAE Paper 970052.

[2] Heseding, M. and Daskalopoulos, P. (2006). Exhaust Emission Legislation-Diesel- and Gas Engines, VDMA, Frankfurt am Main.

[3] J.B. Heywood, “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”,McGraw-Hill Book Co, pp 493-494, 1988.

[4] D. Ing. H. Tschöke, “Diesel distributor fuel-injection pumps”, Robert Bosch GmbH, pp 12-53, 1999.

[5] B. Challen R. Baranescu, “Diesel Engine Reference Book” Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd., Second Edition, pp.260-301, 1999.

[6] M. Volmajer, B. Kegl, “Experimental and numerical analysis of fuel flow in the diesel engine injection nozzle" , Journal of Kones. Combustion Engines, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, 2001.

[7] Z. Li, M. Kokkolaras, D. Jung, Panos Y. Papalambros and D. N. Assanis, “An Optimization Study of Manufacturing Variation Effects on Diesel Injector Design with Emphasis on Emissions”, SAE International, 2004.

[8] A.J.Von Wielligh, “Influence of fuel quality on diesel injector failures”, Fifth International Colloquium Fuels, Germany, 2005.

[9] R.D Reitz,. and F.V Bracco,. (1979): “On the dependence of Spray Angle and Other Spray Parameters on Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions”, SAE paper 790494,.

[10] T. Yoda, T. Tsuda, Inflence of Injection Nozzle Improvement on DI Diesel Engine, SAE paper 970356

[11] Y.Oishi et.al., A computational Study into the Effect of the Injection Nozzle Inclintion Angle on the Flow Characteristics in Nozzle Holes, SAE paper920580

[12] Arcoumanis C. et al., Investigation of Cavitation in a Vertical Multi-Hole Injector, SP-1415, p.181-198, SAE, Warrendale, 1999

[13] C.Arcoumanis et. al., Analysis of the Flow in the Nozzle of a Vertical Multi Hole Diesel Engine Injector, SAE paper 980811

[14] M.Kato et al., Flow Analysis in Nozzle Hole in Consideration of Cavitation, SAE 970052

[15] K.Melcher, I.Komaroff, Experimentelle Utersuchung der Stroemung durch Dieseleinspritzduesen in stationaer betriebenen Grossmodel, Bosch Techn. Berichte 5 (1976)


Numerical Investigation and Fatigue Life Estimation of Modified Diesel Engine Piston

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Manjunatha K, Devaraja Naik N, Chandragowda M

Abstract —Nowadays engine components are subjected to higher load at elevated temperature than before, due to the increase requirement regarding weight, performance and exhaust gas emission. Thus, Fatigue due to simultaneous thermal and cyclic loading become determinant among the damage forms. At the same time, there is the need to reduce development time and cost to handle the growing number of model variant. Therefore, the development of suitable simulation tools, which reduces the number of necessary component tests, seems to be very rewarding. By using special material (aluminum alloy) we can reduce the fatigue load (Thermal and cyclic) on the piston by using finite element analysis, ANSYS work bench 14.5 version.



[1] Back, T. – Schwefel, H-P.(1996): “Evaluation Computation: An Overview”, in proceedings of 196 IEEE International conference on Evolutionary Computation, May 20-22,1996, Nagoya university, Japan. IEEE, pp.20-29. [2] Nelhiebel, A.(2005): Determination of the material parameters of a TMF damage model from experiments, Diplom thesis. [3] Price, K,-Storn, R. (1995): Differential Evolution – a simple and efficient adaptive scheme for global optimization over continuous spaces. Technical Report TR-995-012, ICSI, March 1995 [4] Sehitoglu, H, et al. (2002): “Thermomechanical fatigue analysis cast aluminum engine component”. Termomechnical fatigue behavior of Material vol. 4, ASTM STP 1428 [5] Sehitoglu, H – Neu, R (1989): “Thermomechanical fatigue, Oxidation and creep: Part I and II. Experiments” Metallurgical Transaction, 20A, pp. 1755-1767 [6] K.Mahadevan & K.Balaveera reddy: “Design data hand book”.


Efficient Analysis of Big Data Using Map Reduce Framework

Authors: Dr. Siddaraju, Sowmya C L, Rashmi K, Rahul M

Abstract-- Data now stream from daily life from phones and credit cards and televisions and computers; from the infrastructure of cities from sensor-equipped buildings, trains, buses, planes, bridges, and factories. The data flow so fast that the total accumulation of the past two years is now a zettabyte. This huge volume of data is known as big data. Big Data refers to technologies and initiatives that involve data that is too diverse, fast-changing or massive for conventional technologies, skills and infrastructure to address efficiently. Said differently, the volume, velocity or variety of data is too great. The volume of data with the speed it is generated makes it difficult for the current computing infrastructure to handle big data. To overcome this drawback, big data processing can be performed through a programming paradigm known as MapReduce. Typical, implementation of the mapReduce paradigm requires networked attached storage and parallel processing. Hadoop and HDFS by apache is widely used for storing and managing big data. In this research paper the authors suggest various methods for catering to the problems in hand through MapReduce framework over HDFS. MapReduce technique has been studied at in this paper which is needed for implementing Big Data analysis using HDFS.

Keywords-- Big Data, Zettabyte, MapReduce, Hadoop, HDFS, apache.


[1 ] Hadoop,“PoweredbyHadoop,”http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/Powere dBy.

[2 ] Hadoop Tutorial,YahooInc., https://developer.yahoo.com/hadoop/tutorial/index.html

[3 ] Apache: Apache Hadoop, http://hadoop.apache.org

[4 ] Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), http://hortonworks.com/hadoop/hdfs/

[5 ] Jianqing Fan1, Fang Han and Han Liu, Challenges of Big Data analysis, National Science Review Advance Access published February, 2014.

[6 ] Haddop MapReducehttp://hadooptutorial.wikispaces.com/MapReduce

[7 ] Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). http://aws.amazon.com/s3/

[8 ] Apache Hive, http://hive.apache.org/

[9 ] Jens Dittrich JorgeArnulfo Quian´eRuiz, Efficient Big Data Processing in Hadoop MapReduce.

[10 ] Changqing Ji, Yu Li, Wenming Qiu, Uchechukwu Awada, Keqiu Li, Big Data Processing in Cloud Computing Environments, 2012 International Symposium on Pervasive Systems, Algorithms and Networks.

[11 ] Kyuseok Shim, MapReduce Algorithms for Big Data Analysis.

[12 ] Jeffrey Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat, MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters.

[13 ] Apache Giraph Project, http://giraph.apache.org/

[14 ] Guoping Wang and CheeYong Chan, MultiQuery Optimization in MapReduce Framework

[15 ] VinayakBorkar, Michael J. Carey, Chen Li, Inside “Big Data Management”:Ogres, Onions, or Parfaits?, EDBT/ICDT 2012 Joint Conference Berlin, Germany,2012 ACM 2012, pp 3-14.

[16 ] OnurSavas, YalinSagduyu, Julia Deng, and Jason Li,Tactical Big Data Analytics: Challenges, Use Cases and Solutions, Big Data Analytics Workshop in conjunction with ACM Sigmetrics 2013,June 21, 2013.

[17 ] GrzegorzMalewicz, Matthew H. Austern, Aart J. C. Bik, James C.Dehnert, Ilan Horn, NatyLeiser, and GrzegorzCzajkowski,Pregel: A System for Large-Scale Graph Processing, SIGMOD‟10, June 6– 11, 2010, pp 135-145.


Review for Leach Protocol in WSN

Authors: Shakuntala Yadav, Shyam Singh Yadav

Abstract - we study leach protocol of wireless sensor network in this paper. WSN is very vast and interesting field for researcher. Transmission of each packet exists between one sensor nodes to another node by using some routing protocol. One of these routing protocols is LEACH Protocol. This protocol is known as cluster – based protocol. All nodes are separated by clusters. A cluster can have at least two or more than two node. From these nodes one node work as a cluster head (CH) node. All remaining nodes in the cluster send and receive packets through cluster head (CH). These nodes cannot directly communicate with the nodes of other cluster. In this paper we are going to discuss some techniques that are used on leach protocol. Each technique has some results on different parameters. Our main objective is to compare results of techniques that exist. Finally after comparison we find conclusion on the comparative results.

Keyword - Wireless sensor network, Leach Protocol, Cluster Head, optimization, GA


1. A. C. H. B. Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman, "Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless micro sensor networks," in Proc. 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2000.

2. Xuxun Liu,"A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks",sensors ISSN 1424-8220,August 2012

3. K. Yang, Y. Wu, and H. Zhou, “Research of optimal energy consumption model in wirelss sensor network,” in 2010 2ndInternational Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology,Chengdu, China, Apr. 2010, pp. V7-421 - V7-424.

4. W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, issue 4, Oct. 2002, pp. 660-670.


Modelling Spatial Variability of Load Carrying Capacity of Soil Using GIS

Authors: Karthika Mohan, Radhakrishnan T, Manojkumar T. K, Girish M.S

Abstract— Maximum load per unit area that can be imposed on a footing without causing soil rupture is known as its bearing capacity. This load may be obtained by carrying out a load test which will give a curve between average load per unit area and the settlement of the footing. Most of the bearing capacity theories are emerged from Prandtl’s theory of plastic equilibrium. The most widely used method for the determination of ultimate bearing capacity is proposed by Terzaghi and Meyerhof. Terzaghi’s theory is applicable only for shallow foundation whereas Meyerhof’s theory can be extended for deep foundation as well. Moreover, these methods produce results for point locations only. This study aims to model and analyse the bearing capacity of soil in a spatial framework using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The final results show the degree of load carrying capacity possible for the entire site.

Keywords— Factor of Safety, Kriging, Load Bearing Capacity.


[1] Abdelazim Makki Ibrahim and el al. 2012. ―Assessment of load carrying capacity of bored pile in clay soil using different methods‖, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August, pp.1243- 1253.

[2] J. David Rogers. 2006. ―Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test‖, Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. XII, No. 2, May 2006, pp. 161–179.

[3] Dr. K. R Arora. ―Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (geotechnical engineering)‖, Standard Publishers distributors, Paper No. 587-604

[4] O. P Aghamelu et al. 2011. ―Use of Accelerated Procedure to Estimate the Behaviour of Shallow Foundation‖, International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 03

[5] A. V Narasimha Rao and C. Venkatramaiah. 2000. ―Numerical Problems, Examples and Objective Questions in Geotechnical Engineering‖ Universities Press (India) Limited.

[6] Sanjeev Kumar Verma et al. 2013. ―Prediction of Bearing Capacity of Granular Layered Soils by Plate Load Test‖, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies/Vol. II/ Issue III/April-June, 2013/142- 149.

[7] Eni, Devalsa imoke and et al. 2013. ―Evaluation of soil bearing capacities and its implication for foundation compactibility in calabar, Nigeria‖ Global Advanced Research Journal of Social Science (GARJSS) Vol. 2(2) pp. 034-037, February

[8] David O Sullivan and David Unwin. 2002. ―Geographic Information Analysis‖, John Wiley & Sons,Inc., Hoboken, G70.212.U69.

[9] Peter A. Borrough and Racheal A. McDonnell. ―Principles of Geographical Information Systems‖, Oxford University Press Inc.

[10] P. Purushothoma Raj. 1995. ―Geotechnical Engineering‖, Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Limited.

[11] Gopal Ranjan, A. S.R. Rao. 1993. ―Basic and applied soil Mechanics‖, Wiley Eastern Limited.

[12] S. Sakata et al, 2003. ―An effcient algorithm for Kriging approximation and optimization with large-scale sampling data‖,Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 193 (2004) 385–404.


Performance & Emission of C I Engine Using Diesel & Ethanol Blended with Jatropa Oil.

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Manjunatha K, Chandragowda M, Basava Prakash B

Abstract — In view of increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome, fuels like Biofuel may present a sustainable solution as it can be produced from a wide range of carbon based feedstock. The present investigation evaluates Biofuel (90%jatropa oil+10%ethanol) as a C I engine fuel. The objectives of this report is to analyze the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using Biofuel & compared to usage of ordinary diesel that are available in the market. This report describes the setups and the procedures for the experiment which is to analyze the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of diesel engine due to usage of the both fuels. Detail studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Data that are required for the analysis is observed from the experiments. Calculations and analysis have been done after all the required data needed for the thesis is obtained. The experiment used C I engine with no load which means no load exerted on it. A four stroke Twin cylinder C I engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, and emissions at zero load & full load with the fuel of Biofuel. In this study, the diesel engine was tested using Biofuel (90%jatropa oil+10%ethanol) . By the end of the report, the successful of the project have been started which is Twin cylinder C I engine is able to run with Bio fuel but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by Bio fuel and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using Biofuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of Bio fuel and Diesel fuel are also compared.

Keywords-- Diesel, Performance, Emissions, Biofuel, Jatropha oil.


[1 ] Alan C. Hansen, Qin Zhang and Peter W. L. Lyne, “Ethanol–diesel fuel blends a review”, Bioresource Technology, Volume 96, Issue 3, February 2005, Pages 277-285.

[2 ] Hanbey Hazar, “Effects of biodiesel on a low heat loss diesel engine”, Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 1533–1537.

[3 ] Neven Voca,Boris Varga,Tajana Kricka, Duska Curic, Vanja Jurisic and Ana Matin, “Progress in ethanol production from corn kernel by applying cooking pre-treatment” Bioresource Technology Volume 100, Issue 10, May 2009, Pages 2712-2718.

[4 ] Avinash Kumar Agarwal, “Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines” Renewable Energy, 27 November 2006.

[5 ] Hakan, Bayraktar. “Experimental and theoretical investigation of using gasoline–ethanol blends in spark-ignition engines”, Renewable Energy, 2005; Volume 30, Issue 11:pp1733-1747.

[6 ] Jason J, Daniel Marc, Rosen A, “Exergetic Environmental Assessment of Life Cycle Emissions for various Automobiles and Fuels, Exergy 2 (2002) 283-294

[7 ] Hwanam Kima, Byungchul Choi, “Effect of ethanol–diesel blend fuels on emission and particle size distribution in a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with warm-up catalytic converter”, Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 2222–2228.

[8 ] De-gang Li, Huang Zhen, Lu˘ Xingcai, Zhang Wu-gao and Yang Jian-guang, “Physico-chemical properties of ethanol–diesel blend fuel and its effect on performance and emissions of diesel engines”, Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 967–976.

[9 ] Sehmus Altuna, Husamettin Bulutb and Cengiz Oner, “The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil–diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine”, Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 1791– 1795.

[10 ] Amjad Shaik, ,N Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi, and R Rudramoorthy, “Variable compression ratio engine: a future power plant for automobiles an overview,” Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D April 2007. DOI: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO573.

[11 ] Jincheng Huang, Yaodong Wang, Shuangding Li, Anthony P. Roskilly,Hongdong Yu, Huifen Li, “Experimental Investigation on the Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Ethanol-diesel Blend,” ATE 2697, 2008.


Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Vulnerabilities and its Solution

Authors: Poonam Khare, Sara Ali

Abstract — with the advent of new emerging technologies it has been observed that there is a high increase in attacks .The latest technology which is being widely used is wireless sensor network. WSN is one of the most widely used technologies. WSN is of two types 1) Infrastructure based 2) Infrastructure less network. It offers a great deal of promise by providing features like cost effectiveness, flexibility, scalability etc. As this network is wireless they dynamically change their topology and do not have any central point of contact which allows the nodes to join and leave the network at any given time which leaves the network vulnerable and gives the attacker an opportunity to Spoof the nodes, gain sensitive information and use the same against the network. Through this paper we have tried to target attacks like Wormhole, Spoofing while safeguarding the security. This paper even focuses on traffic related problem and suggests a solution for the same

Keywords — Spoofing, WSN, Attacks, Wormhole, VPN, Traffic Analysis, DOS


[1 ] An Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks Bhaskar Krishnamachari

[2 ] Wireless sensor network survey By Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal

[3 ] MANET(Mobile ad hoc network)- Characterics and Features

[4 ] Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Networks By Yih-Chun Hu, , Adrian Perrig, and David B. Johnson

[5 ] Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks:Analysis and Countermeasure ByMajid Khabbazian, Hugues Mercier and Vijay K. Bhargava

[6 ] The Wormhole Routing Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) By Lukman Sharif* and Munir Ahmed

[7 ] Alzaid, Hani and Abanmi, Suhail and Kanhere, Salil and Chou, Chun Tung (2006) Detecting Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks. Technical Report, Computer Science and Engineering School - UNSW, The Network Research Laboratory - UNSW

[8 ] A graph theoretic framework for preventing the wormhole attack in wireless ad hoc networks Radha Poovendran, Loukas Lazos

[9 ] Network Security Using Cryptographic Techniques Sumedha Kaushik and Ankur Singhal

[10 ] International journal of innovative research in computer and communication engineering.

[11 ] Bayrem Triki, Slim Rekhis and Noureddine Boudriga, ―Digital Investigation of Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks‖, IEEE 2010, pp 179-186.

[12 ] Thanassis Giannetsos, Tassos Dimitriou and Neeli R. Prasad, ―State of the Art on Defenses against Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks‖, IEEE 2009, pp 313-318.

[13 ] Mahdi Nouri, Somayeh Abazari Aghdam and Sajjad Abazari Aghdam, ―Collaborative Techniques for Detecting Wormhole Attack in WSNs‖, IEEE 2011, pp 1-6.

[14 ] An Overview on Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Network: Challenges, Impacts, and Detection Approach Saurabh Ughade, R.K. Kapoor and Ankur Pandey

[15 ] Adhoc networks :filter based addressing protocol, Tanaya Mehendale,Y.D.Chincholkar

[16 ] A novel deterministic key pre distribution schemes for wireless sensor networks, Mahesh , Sachin, Snehal, Rajkumar and Suryakant

[17 ] Comparative review study of security of ARAN and AODV routing protocols in manets, Er Ruby Goel and Er M eenakshi Mittal.


Design and Construction of a Small Scale Charcoal Baking Oven

Authors: D M Kulla, I M EBEKPA, M Sumaila

Abstract- The need for baked food has become a necessity in disgust. Bread and cakes has become part of our lives, as such an oven for baking of bread/cake become important. The production of different types of oven has grown rapidly over the years particularly baking oven for domestic use. But in our society today these ovens have been crippled by electricity power instability in the urban settlement and lack of electricity in the rural settlement because they largely depend on electricity. Therefore the need for baking oven not depending on electricity arises. Charcoal oven which is one of such oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and small-scale business this oven uses little quantity of charcoal to bake at a short time.

Keywords-- baking, charcoal ,oven, Temperature, Time


[1] Armando Manhiça, Fabião/ Lucas, Carlos/ Richards, Tobias (2012): Wood consumption and analysis of the bread baking process in wood-fired bakery oven., Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 47, 5 December 2012, Pages 63-72, available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359431112001 627.

[2] Emma Christensen (2012) How To Bake a Potato in the Oven www.thekitchn.com/how-to-bake-a-potato-in-the-oven-165615

[3] Fellows, Peter 2012: Baking. Technical Brief of Practical Action. This is a technical brief about the baking process. March 2012, available at: http://practicalaction.org/baking.

[4] Giz Hera (2014) Baking with Improved Ovens. Available online at https://energypedia.info/wiki/Baking_with_Improved_Ovens

[5] GIZ India (2011): Identification of Industrial Sectors Promising for Commercialisation of Solar Energy, Commercialisation of Solar Energy in Urban and Industrial Areas – ComSolar, New Dehli, India. Available online at http://www.giz.de/en/downloads/giz2011-commercialisationsolar-energy-india-en.pdf.

[6] Julia Layton (1998) Calculating Convection Oven Cooking Times. Available online at home.howstuffworks.com/.../calculating-convection-ovencooking-times..

[7] Kulla, D. M (2011) :Technology improvement for safety and economy in wood burning devices in Nigeri., Ph.D Thesis, Department of mechanical Engineering, A.B.U Zaria.

[8] Kulla, D M, Sumaila, M, Alabi A A and Bamshima A M (2014) Evaluation of Cooking Energy Efficiencies and Emissions. 4th Annual and International Conference of The Renewable and Alternative Energy Society of Nigeria(RAESON) Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria Feb 23-26 G27

[9] Rajput, R K. (2004)“Heat and Mass Transfer” S.Chand and Company Limited, New Delhi.

[10] Stephane Jaworski (1997) Oven Baking Temperatures: joy of baking.com: http://www.joyofbaking.com/OvenTemperatures.html#ixzz35ugC znVD

[11] The Independent Aquarius(TIA) (2012) oven - How to decide the baking temperature Cooking Available online at .stackexchange.com/.../how-to-decide-the-baking-temperature-w.

[12] UNIDO 2004: Small-scale Cereal Milling and Bakery Products, Production Methods, Equipment and Quality Assurance Practices, Technology Manual, UNIDO: Vienna. Available at: http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Publications/Pub_ free/Small_scale_cereal_milling_and_bakery_products.pdf


Effect of Inlet Air Swirl on Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Performance

Authors: Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrennagoudaru, Shiva Prasad desai

Abstract —Optimizing airflow performance during intake valve process is the main purpose for this project. Analyses were done in CFD simulation and experimental using a test rig single cylinder 4 stroke direct injection diesel engine. This analysis also reported and compared with both analyses where experimental result can meet a nearly required targeted limit due to some realistic condition. Fabrication of intake valves also were made to do analysis on experimental based on the modify design. This being done after simulation analysis, modeling design was using to be fabricated and analyze the model on test rig machine to verify simulating result. This analysis could be used to increase thermal efficiency and maximizing usage of air fuel in combustion process, which reduce pollution to environment. Even though air flow have been optimized on its intake valve, but still intake system could be improve by considering other parts of engine such as intake manifold.

Keywords— Swirl, Turbulence, cfd analysis, thermal efficiency HC and CO.


[1 ] Pandey K. M. and Roy Bidesh : Intake valve design for high level swirl Induction in carbureted spark ignition engine, Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.I.T Silchar, Assam (INDIA) JERDVol. 7 No. 1A, July-September 2012

[2 ] Seita Akimoto Techniques for Low NOx Combustion on Medium Speed Diesel Engine TECHNICAL PAPER

[3 ] Jorge MARTINS Design of an inlet track of a small i. C. Engine for swirl enhancement 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

[4 ] Bassem Ramadan, Study of swirl generation in di diesel engine using kiva-3v Kettering University

[5 ] Christophe Garth Extraction and Visualization of Swirl and Tumble Motion from Engine Simulation Data, Univ. of Kaiserslautern (hagen@informatik.uni-kl.de)

[6 ] Wendy Hardyono CFD Investigation of Fluid Flow and Turbulence Field Characteristics in a Four-Stroke Automotive Direct Injection Engine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Techniques for Low NOx Combustion on Medium Speed Diesel Engine

[7 ] Fredrik Karlsson Modeling the Intake Manifold Dynamics in a Diesel Engine, Avdelning, Institution Division, Department

[8 ] Abhilash M Bharadwaj Study of Swirl and Tumble Motion using CFD Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

[9 ] Mike Bergin Examination of initialization and geometric details on the results of cfd simulations of diesel engines International MultiDimensional Engine Modeler Meeting April 19, 2009, Detroit,

[10 ] N. Neal and D. Rothamer an Optical Study of the Impact of Swirl Ratio on Extended Lift-off Diesel Combustion Spring Technical Meeting of the Central States Section of the Combustion Institute April 22-24, 2012

[11 ] V.V. Prathibha Bharathi Influence of in cylinder air swirl on diesel engine performance and emission International Journal of Applied Engineering and Technology ISSN: 2277-212X (Online)


Characterization and Investigation of Tensile Test on Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite Material

Authors: Kotresh Sardar, Dr. K. Veeresh, Manjunatha Gowda

Abstract— This paper constitutes the study of Mechanical Properties like Tensile Strength of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% KFRPC material used as Bio-material. An attempt is made to develop the 10%, 20% 30% and 40% KFRPC material with low density, economical for tissue implant with respect to biocompatibility and the mechanical behavior of human tissues, such as Tendon, according to the ASTM D-3039 for Tensile test using the polyester resin as the matrix material with the 10%, 20% 30% and 40% of the KFRPC material with fiber weight fraction, random continuous long fiber orientation, by using the Hand Layup fabrication technique the specimens are prepared. The tensile tests are conducted by preparing varying percentage of standard. It is found that there is appreciable improvement in Tensile Properties of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% KFRPC material. This Study suggests 40% of KFRPC material may be suitable for the different application in the replacement of human tissues. From the Experimental results it is found that by increasing the weight fraction of the fiber or percentage of fiber which will increase the Tensile strength and also increases the density and mass of composite of the specimen. This paper is concentrated on study of tensile strength of tendon and compared the experimental results of the 10%, 20% 30% and 40% KFRPC material with the Tendon. This study suggests that the KFRPC material is less cost, low density and high strength biocompatible material and may be suggested for implant, especially for Tendon. From the Experimental results the strengths of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% KFRPC materials will match the Tendon Strength. Finally 40% KFRPC material can be suggested for Tendon. Further it can be tested for remaining mechanical tendon properties.

Keywords— Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composite Materials (KFRPC), Tendon, Tensile test and Hand layup Technique.


[1] Berghezan, A. Nucleus, 8(5), 1966, (Nucleus A Editeur, 1, rhe, Chalgrin, Paris, 16(e).

[2] M S.Ramakrishna, J. Mayer, E. Wintermantel, Kam W. Leong, paper entitled ―Biomedical application of polymercomposite materials: a review‖, Composites science and technology journal, 61 (2001), pp (1189-1224), ELSEVIER.

[3] Williams,Wiley, New York, 1980, Ch. 36. G. F. Howden, Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials (eds G. W. Hastings & D. F)

[4] D. CHANDRAMOHAN et al. paper entitled ―Bio composite materials based on bio polymers and natural fibers -contribution as bone implants‖ (ijamsar) international journal of advanced medical sciences and applied research vol no. 1, issue no. 1, 009 – 012.

[5] Girisha.C*1, Sanjeevamurthy2, Gunti Rangasrinivas3 , Manu.S4 ―Mechanical Performance Of Natural Fiber-Reinforced EpoxyHybrid Composites‖

[6] Dr. K R Dinesh1, Jagadish S P 2, Dr. A Thimmanagouda3 , Dr. Neeta Hatapaki4, ―Characterization and Investigation of Tensile and Compression Test on Sisal Fibre Reinforcement Epoxy Composite Materials Used as Orthopaedic Implant‖

[7] www.biomaterials.com

[8] Williams, Wiley, New York, 1980, Ch. 36. G. F. Howden, Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials (eds G. W. Hastings & D. F.)

[9] M.SAKTHIVEl1, S.RAMESH2 Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre (Banana,Coir, Sisal) Polymer Composites

[10] D. CHANDRAMOHANa, K. MARIMUTHUb* Characterization of natural fibers and their application in bone grafting substitutes


Password Authentication Key Exchange By Two Server Password Only in Web Applications.

Authors: Rupali Zamare, Rajesh Phursule

Abstract--In the world of communication there is need of secure transmission of message so password based authentication make a client and a server to authenticate and established a session key through Deffie Hellman and ElGamal protocol. In single server architecture, passwords are stored in single server only, if it got hacked through attack, the password will get easily accessed by the intruder .To solve this problem two server with password authenticated key exchange is used where symmetric or asymmetric way is applied .So in the symmetric protocol which is used to initialized our secure transmission ,client can form cryptographic keys in two servers. The efficiency of protocol is better ,It is cost effective and lead to parallel execution of servers which are included for registration and authentication.

Keywords—Deffie Hellman protocol, ElGamal encryption, two passwords only


1] Xun Yi, San Ling, and Huaxiong Wang ,”Efficient Two-Server Password-Only Authenticated Key Exchange”,IEEE Transactions On Parallel And Distributed Systems, Vol. 24, No. 9, September 2013

[2] Y. Yang, R.H. Deng, and F. Bao, “Fortifying Password Authentication in Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems,” Proc. ACM Symp. Information, Computer and Comm. Security (ASIACCS ’06), pp. 255- 265, 2006.

[3] M. Abdalla and D. Pointcheval, “Simple Password-Based Encrypted Key Exchange Protocols,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Topics in Cryptology (CT-RSA), pp. 191-208, 2005.

[4] Y. Yang, F. Bao, and R.H. Deng, “A New Architecture for Authentication and Key Exchange Using Password for Federated Enterprise,” Proc. 20th IFIP Int’l Information Security Conf. (SEC ’05), pp. 95-111, 2005.

[5] D. Boneh and M. Franklin, “Identity Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing,” SIAM J. Computing, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 586- 615, 2003.

[6] M. Di Raimondo and R. Gennaro, “Provably Secure Threshold Password Authenticated Key Exchange,” Proc. 22nd Int’l Conf. Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques (Eurocrypt ’03), pp. 507-523, 2003.

[7] J. Brainard, A. Jueles, B.S. Kaliski, and M. Szydlo, “A New TwoServer Approach forAuthentication with Short Secret,” Proc. 12th Conf. USENIX Security Symp., pp. 201-214, 2003.

[8] P. MacKenzie, S. Patel, and R. Swaminathan, “PasswordAuthenticated Key Exchange Based on RSA,” Proc. Sixth Int’l Conf. Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security: Advances inCryptology (Asiacrypt ’00), pp. 599-613, 2000.

[9] L. Gong, T.M.A. Lomas, R.M. Needham, and J.H. Saltzer, “Protecting Poorly-Chosen Secret from Guessing Attacks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 648-656, June 1993.


Design, Fabrication and Graphical Analysis of a Pneumatic Reciprocating Block Feeder

Authors: Pradeep Khanna, Isha Jain, Nidhi Gahlot, Harshit Bansal, Mukul Chaturvedi

Abstract— The project aimed in design, fabrication and graphical analysis of a Pneumatic Reciprocating Block Feeder. The project starts with an extensive study on feeders, their different types, designs, characteristics, performance and applications. It progresses with designing of a Pneumatic Reciprocating Block Feeder. Its individual components were developed and assembled and dimensional accuracy was ensured to maintain a feeding mechanism. The preliminary knowledge and constraints on design of feeder hence developed led to selection of three parameters of interest which are stroke rate (number of strokes per minute) of reciprocating part-lifter, part population and part size (diameter). Some experiments and observations made possible the selection of range of each parameter. A series of experimentation was carried out on feeder wherein each parameter of interest is changed while others are kept constant and corresponding feed rate is recorded. Extensive graphical analysis is done on data so collected. The results and discussions made hence forth, draws a conclusion on conditions of operation for best performance of feeder.

Keywords— design, fabrication and graphical analysis of feeder, feeder, graphical analysis of feeder, pneumatic reciprocating block feeder, pneumatic reciprocating feeder


[1] Hesse S., "Rationalisation of small workpiece feeding", Festo AG & Co., 2000

[2] Boothroyd G. (2005), "Assembly Automation and Product Design", 2nd edition, CRC press, Taylor and Francis group

[3] Singh S.P., Ghosh S., Khanna P. and Tanwar A., (2009), ―Mathematical Performance Analysis of Rotary Fork Hopper Feeder‖, Proceedings of 2009 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development (SCORED), ISBN 978-1-4244-5186-9, UPM Serdang, Malysia, Nov. 2009

[4] Punn R., Bansal S., Jain S., Goel M. and Khanna P., ―Graphical Modeling Approach for Optimisation of a Rotary Hook Feeder‖, 3rd International Conference on Advances in Material and Manufacturing Technology (AMMT-13)

[5] Rajput A., Jain I., Gahlot N. and Khanna P., ―Design, Fabrication and Graphical Analysis of a Scoop Wheel Feeder‖, International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJRMET) Vol. 4, Issue 1, Nov 2013 – April 2014, ISSN: 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN: 2249-5770 (Print)