S.No.

Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2014 (Title of Paper )

Page No.
1.

Nursing Students’ Experience of Simulation-based Learning with Standardized Patients

Author: Hye-Kyung Oh

Abstract— This study was carried out to examine the awareness and experiences of nursing students who learned through simulated practice with standardized patients, and to identify ways to include it in learner-centered nursing practice education. Data collection was carried out from September 2012 to June 2013, and was discontinued when data saturation was achieved. Thus, nine people participated in this study. The data were analyzed using the Giorgi method. The focal meanings that emerged from the analysis were “Confidence,” “Realistic attraction,” “Emotional support,” and “Situational coping ability.” The participants realized that they had learnt to apply theory to practice through this method, and reported that it was essential knowledge for their future as a nurse. The findings of this study suggested that experiencing such a simulation-based technique complements the limitations of the existing hands-on training, and increases the effectiveness of learner-centered nursing practice education.

Keywords— Simulation-based learning, Standardized patients

References-

[1] S. E. Chung and S. H. Lee, 2010. Nursing Student's Experience using Simulation. Qualitative Research. 11(1), 50-59.

[2] M. R. Canon-Diebl, 2009. Simulation in healthcare and nursing; state of the science. Crit. Care Nurs. Q. 32(2), 128-136.

[3] W. S. Lee, K. C. Cho. S. H. Yang, Y. S. Roh, and G. Y. Lee, 2009. The Effects of PBL(Problem-Based Learning) on the SelfDirected Learning, Critical Thinking Disposition, and problem Solving Process of Nursing Students. J. Korean Acad. Fundam. Nurs. 16(1), 46-55.

[4] W. N Nehring and F. R. Lashley, 2004. Current use and opinions regarding human patients simulators in nursing education: An international survey. Nurs. Educ. Perspect. 25(5), 233-382.

[5] S. Decker, S. Sportaman, L. Puetz and L. Billings, 2008. The evolution of simulation and its contribution to competency. J. Contin. Educ. Nurs. 39(2), 74-80.

[6] E. Y. Yoo, 2005. Medical Simulation Continuing Education Column. 267-276.

[7] S. S. Kim, 2008. The Present and Strategy of Practice based Learning in Nursing. Proceedings of 2008 International Symposium PBL in Jeju, 33-39.

[8] A. Lathrop, B. Winningham and L. VandeVusse, 2007. Simulationbased learning for midwives: Background and pilot implementation. J. MidWifery Womens Health. 52(5), 492-498.

[9] A. Reilly and C. Spratt, 2007. The perceptions of undergraduate student nurses of high-fidelity simulation-based learning: A case repert from the University of Tasmania. Nurse Educ. Today. 27(6), 542-550.

[10] Y. I. Kim, 1990. What is evaluated in basic medical practice J. Korea Med. Educ. 2(1), 12-18. [11] A. Giorgi, 1985. Phenomenology and psychological research. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.

[12] K. Lasater, 2007. High-fidelity simulation and the development of clinical judgement: student’s experience. J. Nurs. Educ. 46(6), 269- 276.

[13] J.H. Lee, S. S. Kim, K. S. Yeo, S. J. Cho, and H. L. Kim, 2009. Experience among undergraduate nursing students on high-fidelity simulation education: a focus group study. J. Korean Acad Soc Nurs Edu. 15(2), 183-193.

[14] H. K. Oh, 2013. Phenomenological Analysis of Nursing Students’ Learning Experience Applying Standardized Patients. Proceedings of 2013 International Conference Health care and Nursing in Jeju, 70-73.

 

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2.

A Cake Baking Experiment using Fractional Factorial Split Plot (FFSP) Design

Authors: Farah Yasmeen, Asim Jamal Siddiqui

Abstract— This research work covers the various factors to be considered for the EtherCAT slave stack porting to PLC input/output module. It covers the different aspects of EtherCAT slave module implementation, EtherCAT functional principle and slave stack integration in the user application. It also details the role of EtherCAT in PLC backplane communication as well as real time capabilities of EtherCAT networks. Ethernet for Control Automation Technology (EtherCAT) - is an open source, relatively high speed fieldbus system based on Ethernet basics. The motivation for EtherCAT development was to improve Ethernet capabilities so that it can be applied to automation applications which require real time operations and low component costs. Capability of EtherCAT to use Ethernet or EBUS/Low voltage differential signaling as a physical layer opens the door for EtherCAT to be used for backplane bus communication.

Key words-

EtherCAT, CANopen Over EtherCAT (CoE), PLC, Backplane, Fieldbus, Protocol, Real Time Ethernet, I/O Module

References-

[1] EtherCAT enabled Advanced Control Architecture. Martin Rostan and Joseph E. Stubbs EtherCAT Technology Group,Ostendstr. 196 90482 Nuremberg, Germany. Dmitry Dzilno Applied Materials Inc. 2841 Scott Blvd.Santa Clara, CA 95050 USA. ASMC 2010

[2] The Relevant Research Of CoE Protocol In EtherCAT Industrial Ethernet. Yongming Chen ,Hua Chen ,Mingzhong Zhang Department of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering Xiamen University Xiamen, P.R. China. Yin Li CNC Department Yunyuan CNC Tech,CO.,LTD Zhangzhou, P.R. China

[3] An EtherCAT based Control System for Human-Robot Cooperation Il-Kyun Jung, Sun Lim, Korea Electronic Technology Institute(KETI) 401-402, Bucheon Technopark, Yakdae-dong, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, South of Korea.

[4] Huan Ji,Xiao Wenlei ,and Liu Yanqiang, "Redundancy and hot swap technology in industrial Ethernet EtherCA T,"Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astonautics,Beijing.Vo1.35,N02, PP.158-161,February 2009.

[5] A Performance Analysis of EtherCAT and PROFINET IRT, Conference paper by, Gunnar Prytz Norway. 13th IEEE international Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation.

[6] ET1200 Datasheet Version 1.7 (Beckhoff)

[7] High Speed Industrial Ethernet for Semiconductor Equipments. Martin Rostan SEMI Technology Symposium, Innovations in Semiconductor Manufacturing, July 2006

[8] Limits of Increasing the Performance of Industrial Ethernet Protocols, Juergen Jasperneite, Markus Schumacher, inIT - Institute Industrial IT, LuH University of Applied Sciences 1-4244-0826- 1/07/$20.00 © 2007 IEEE

[9] Yang Xianhui, Networked control systems-Fieldbus technology. Tsinghua University Press: Beijing, July 2008, P .121.

[10] CANopen, www.can-cia.org [11] www.ethercat.org

7-12
3.

Cloud in Indian e-governance Model

Authors: Madhumita Dash, R N Panda

Abstract— Now a day’s E – governance being not only one of the important source of information and communication technology to transform the competence, success, simplicity and answerability for exchange of government, between government and various governmental agencies of National, State, Municipal and Local Levels, citizen and business to authorize citizen , but also is the strength of character for majority of businesses for companies in procuring quality of services from an experienced service provider and also empowers citizens by giving right to access the information. As a natural evolution of the Internet, cloud computing has become the dominant model of enterprise computing because it can profoundly change the way organizations access and use ICT products and services. This paper shows that cloud computing can be used to facilitate ―real-time e-governance‖ across the length and breadth of the country and for cities or towns lacking technological infrastructure, cloud computing can be a major boon because it enables quick project execution. This paper also describe current internet penetration in India is only eight percent and cloud computing if used strategically, can aid internet proliferation substantially.

Keywords—Real-time e-governance, Internet penetration, Proliferation substantially

References-

[1] Allen, B.A., Juillet, L. Paquet, P. & Roy, J. “EGovernance & government on-line in Canada:Partnerships, people & prospects”, Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 18, 2001, pp. 93–104.

[2] Armour, F.J., Kaisler, S.H. and Liu, S.Y. “Building anEnterprise Architecture Step by Step”, IEEE ITProfessional, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1999, pp. 31-39.

[3] Carter, F.J. Jambulingham, T., Gupta, V.K. & Melone, N. “Technological innovations: a framework for communicating diffusion effects”, Information and Management, Vol. 38, 2001, pp. 277-287.

[4] Dalal, N.P., Kamath, M., Kolarik, W.J. & Sivaraman, E. “Toward an Integrated Framework for Modeling Enterprise Processes”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 47, No.3, 2004, pp. 83- 87.

[5] Edwards, P. & Newing, R. Application Integration for E-business.

[6] Fawcett, S.E. “Using Strategic Assessment to Increase the Valueadded Capabilties of Manufacturing and Logistics”, Production and Inventory Management Journal, 1995, pp. 33-27.

[7] Graaf, T. (2004). De Andere Overheid. Report Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations,www.andereoverheid.nl.

[8] Hackney, R.A. & McBride, N.K. „The efficacy of information systems in the public sector: issues of context and culture”, International Journal of Public Sector management, Vol. 8, No. 6, 1995, pp. 17-29.

[9] Hazlett, S.A. & Hill, F. “E-government: the realities of using IT to transform the public sector”, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2003, pp. 445-452.

[10] Irani, Z. and Love, P.E.D. “Developing a frame of reference for exante IT/IS investment evaluation”, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 11 No. 1, 2002, pp. 74-82.

[11] Jaeger, P.T. “The Endless Wire: E-government as global phenomenon” Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 20, pp. 323- 331, 2003.

[12] Janssen, M.F.W.H.A. Designing Electronic Intermediaries. An Agent-based Approach for Designing Interorganizational Coordination Mechanisms. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, 2001.

[13] LaLonde, B.J. & Pohlen, T.L. “Issues in Supply Chain Costing”, The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1996, pp. 1-12.

[14] Lam, W. & Shankararaman, V. “An Enterprise Integration Methodology”, IT professional, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2004, pp. 40-48.

[15] Lee, J., Siau, K., and Hong, S. “Enterprise Integration with ERP and EAI”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2003, 54-60.

[16] Linthicum, D. Enterprise Application Integration. Addison-Wesley, MA, USA, 1999.

[17] W. Mendenhall, and T. Sincich, Statistics of the Engineering and Computer Sciences. Collier Macmillan, Canada,1988.

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4.

Solar Water Heaters Usage in India – Current Scenario and Vision 2020-Review

Authors: Narasimhe Gowda, B. Putta Bore Gowda, R. Chandrashekar

Abstract— India is a country with more than 1.2 billion people accounting for more than 17% of world’s population. It is the seventh largest country in the world. It faces a formidable challenge in providing adequate energy supplies to users at a reasonable cost. Thus the energy challenge is of fundamental importance. The objective is to carry out sector and segment-wise market assessment studies and surveys; to gain an insight into the current market for solar water heaters and, to project realizable market potential in each sector and segment till the year 2020. Study the global status of solar water heaters and solar water heaters in India. In 2008, the cumulative solar water heaters capacity across the global market was 15 GHth. Growth in recent years has been 15% per year. There are estimated 40 million households (2.5 % of the total) which were using solar water heaters worldwide in 2004. China is the leader; 10% 0f Chinese households use solar water heaters; the target for 2020 being 30%. In 2008, 65.6 % of existing global solar water heaters capacity was in China; followed by European Union (12.3%), Turkey (5.8%), Japan (4.1%) and Israel (2.8%). The Indian share was 1.2%. The annual average growth in solar water heaters installations in India during 1995-2008 was 16.8%. Further, this period (1995-2008) can be divided into three phases: in first phase, 1995-2000: The average annual growth during this period was 8.2%. A study reported that in 2001, almost 80% of the solar water heaters installations were in the commercial and industrial sectors. In second phase, 2001-2004: The average annual growth rate in this period was 20.6%. The market for residential systems became pre-dominant and in third phase, 2004-2008: The average annual growth rate this period was 24.6%.

Keywords—Cumulative solar water heaters, Global status of solar water heaters, Solar water heaters potential in India, Solar potential in residential sector, Solar potential in hotel sector.

References-

[1] R.K. Gera, Dr. H.M. Rai, Yunus parvej and Himanshu Soni, 2013, Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and Challenges. Indian Journal of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, vol.1 10 – 16.

[2] Renewables Global Status Report 2009 update (REN 21.).

[3] Han Jiangong, 2008, Experience and Future of Solar Energy in China, Presentation made at Copenhagen.

[4] Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, 2008, Report on market situation and trends about relevant solar thermal applications, Solar combi + project of European Union.

[5] Chandrasekar,B., Kandpal, T.C., 2004, Techno-economic evaluation of domestic solar water heating systems in India. Renewable Energy 29, 319–332.

[6] Pillai I.R., Banerjee R., 2007, Methodology for estimation of potential for solar water heating in a target area. Solar Energy 81, 162–172.

[7] Greentech Knowledge Solution (P) Ltd, 2010, Global Solar Water Heating Project, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Website: www.greentechsolution.co.in

[8] Ankur Omen, Smarajit Ghosh, Rajnish kaushik, 2013, Indian power system: Issues and Opportunities. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 2 (3).

[9] Dr. Tarlochan Kaur, „The Indian power Sector – A Sustainable Way Forward‟, IPEC 2010, 666-669.

[10] The potential for renewable energy in India-2012

[11] P. Garg, 2012, Energy Scenario and Vision 2020 in India. Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environment 3, 7-17.

16-21
5.

Comparative Study of the Effect of using Different types of Portland Cement and other Additives on Alkali-Silica Reaction of Concrete Aggregates

Authors: B K Munzni, Ravi Agarwal, Pankaj Sharma , U S Vidyarthi

Abstract—Alkali silica reaction is potentially a very disruptive reaction within concrete in which silica reacts with alkalis to form a gel which expands and disrupts its mechanical properties. Dilution of alkalis by increasing silica content using Portland pozzolana cement or Portland slag cement or some mineral additives like flyash, micro silica, metakaolin etc. retards rate of Alkali silica reaction. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of using Portland pozzolana cement, Portland slag cement, and different percentage of silica fume on Alkali silica reaction expansion. The outcome of the study is presented in this paper.

Keywords— Accelerated Mortar Bar; Alkali-Aggregate Reactions; Portland Pozzolana Cement; Portland Slag Cement; Silica Fume; Gel; Expansion.

References-

[1] M.D.A. Thomas, Review of the effect of fly ash and slag on alkali - aggregate reaction in concrete, Building Research establishment Report, BR314, Construction Research Communications, Watford, UK, 1996.

[2] M.D.A. Thomas, Field studies of fly ash concrete structures containing reactive aggregates, Mag Concr Res 48 (177) (1996) 265 - 279.

[3] E.R. Dunstan, The effect of fly ash on concrete alkali - aggregate reaction, Cem Concr Aggregates 3 (2) (1981) 101 -104.

[4] P. Klieger, S. Gebler, Fly ash and concrete durability, Concrete Durability, Katharine and Bryant Mather International Conference, ACI SP- 100, vol. 1, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, (1987)1043 -1069.

[5] M.H. Shehata, M.D.A. Thomas, R.F. Bleszynski, The effect of fly ash composition on the chemistry of pore solution, Cem Concr Res 29 (1999) 1915 - 1920.

[6] C. Lee, Effects of alkalis in Class C fly ash on alkali – aggregate reaction, in: V.M. Malhotra (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd International M.H. Shehata, M.D.A. Thomas / Cement and Concrete Research 30 (2000) 1063 -1072 Conference on the Use of Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, ACI SP- 114, vol. 1, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1989 pp. 417- 430.

[7] M.A. Berube, J. Duchesne, D. Chouinard, Why the accelerated mortar bar test method ASTM C1260 is reliable for evaluating the effectiveness of supplementary cement, Cem Concr Aggregates 17 (1) (1995) 26 - 34.

[8] M.D.A. Thomas, F.A. Innis, Use of the accelerated mortar bar test for evaluating the efficacy of mineral admixtures for controlling expansion due to alkali - silica reaction, Cem Concr Aggregates 21 (2) (Dec. 1999) 157 -164.

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6.

Comparison between Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Using Classification Based Emissivity and NDVI Based Emissivity

Author: Isabel C. Perez Hoyos

Abstract—Remote sensing of land cover has been widely used in order to understand the relationship between natural and anthropogenic changes occurring in the surface of the earth at a range of temporal and spatial scales. This study investigates the relationship between land cover changes and land surface temperature (LST) changes. This was accomplished by developing land surface classification images using a maximum likelihood algorithm that will be compared to images obtained using k-means unsupervised clustering method, and comparing these to land surface temperature retrieved from Landsat thermal band 6. In order to retrieve LST it is necessary to know the land surface emissivity values. For this reason, LST was retrieved using NDVI and Classification based emissivity values. Results show good agreement between LST images obtained using the two methods to derive land surface emissivity, and increase in LST from 1985 to 2011 is coincident with increase in percentage of urban and built up areas. Results also show good agreement between supervised and unsupervised classification for water and forestland. However, there is an underestimation of barren land cover category and an overestimation of urban areas category when using k-means clustering algorithm.

Keywords— Landsat, Land cover, Land surface temperature; Land surface classification; Emissivity.

References-

[1] Pouliot, D., Latifovic, R., Fernandes, R., Olthof, I., 2009. Evaluation of annual forest disturbance monitoring using a static decision tree approach and 250 m MODIS data. Remote Sensing of Environment 113, 1749–1759.

[2] Loveland, T.R. and Belward, A.S., 1997. The IGBP-DIS Global 1 km Land Cover Data Set, DISCover First Results. International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 18, no. 5, p. 3,289-3,295.

[3] Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E.F., 2011. Global Forest Transition: Prospects for an End to Deforestation. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36, 343–371.

[4] Defries, R.S., Belward, A.S., 2000. Global and regional land cover characterization from satellite data: an introduction to the Special Issue. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21, 1083–1092.

[5] Giri, C., 2012. Brief Overview of Remote Sensing of Land Cover, in: Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover, Remote Sensing Applications Series. CRC Press, pp. 3–12.

[6] Becker, F. and Z. L. Li. 1990. Towards a local split window method over land surfaces. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 11:369-393.

[7] Weng, Q., 2001. A remote sensing-GIS evaluation of urban expansion and its impact on surface temperature in the Zhujiang Delta, China. International Journal of Remote Sensing 22 (10), 1999_2014.

[8] Weng, Q., 2003. Fractal analysis of satellite-detected urban heat island effect. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69 (5), 555_566.

[9] Weng, Q., Lu, D., Schubring, J., 2004. Estimation of land surface temperature vegetation abundance relationship for urban heat island studies. Remote Sensing of Environment 89, 467–483.

[10]El Hajj, M., Bégué, A., Lafrance, B., Hagolle, O., Dedieu, G., Rumeau, M., 2008. Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series. Sensors 8, 2774– 2791.

[11] Martin Herold, Antonio Di Gregorio, 2012. Evaluating Land-Cover Legends Using the UN Land-Cover Classification System, in: Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover, Remote Sensing Applications Series. CRC Press, pp. 65–90.

[12] Darren Pouliot, Rasim Latifovic, Ian Olthof, Robert Fraser, 2012. Supervised Classification Approaches for the Development of LandCover Time Series, in: Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover, Remote Sensing Applications Series. CRC Press, pp. 177– 190.

[13] Weng, Q. 2009. Thermal infrared remote sensing for urban climate and environmental studies: methods, applications, and trends. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64(4): 335-344.

[14] Voogt, J.A., Oke, T.R., 1998. Effects of urban surface geometry on remotely-sensed surface temperature. International Journal of Remote Sensing 19, 895–920.

[15] Snyder, W.C., Wan, Z., Zhang, Y., Feng, Y.-Z., 1998. Classificationbased emissivity for land surface temperature measurement from space. International Journal of Remote Sensing 19, 2753–2774.

[16] Nichol, J.E., 2005. Remote Sensing of Urban Heat Islands by day and night Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing. Vol. 71, No. 5, pp. 613–621.

[17]Artis, D.A., and W.H. Carnahan, 1982. Survey of emissivity variability in thermography of urban areas, Remote Sensing of the Environment, 12:313–329.

[18]Sobrino, J.A., Jiménez-Muñoz, J.C., Paolini, L., 2004. Land surface temperature retrieval from LANDSAT TM 5. Remote Sensing of Environment 90, 434–440.

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7.

Preventing Password Reuse Attacks Using Authentication Protocol

Authors: Bharti Vijay Nikose, Ravindra Gupta, Gaurav Shrivastav

Abstract— Wording password is typically the most popular form involving user authentication on websites car without any convenience in addition to simplicity. On the other hand, users’ passwords are inclined to be ripped off and sacrificed under various threats in addition to vulnerabilities. To begin with, users usually select vulnerable passwords in addition to reuse exactly the same passwords all over different web sites. Routinely reusing accounts causes a domino effect; when the adversary compromises one password, she may exploit the item to gain access to more web sites. Second, keying in passwords in untrusted personal computers suffers pass word thief risk. An adversary can start several pass word stealing attacks to snatch passwords, including phishing, keyloggers in addition to malware. Within this paper, we design a user authentication process named oPass which usually leverages a user’s cellular and limited message support to thwart password thieving and pass word reuse attacks. oPass simply requires each and every participating site possesses an original phone variety, and requires a telecommunication service agency in signing up and recovery phases.

Keywords— Network Security, Password Attacks, Authentication

References-

[1] C. Yue and H. Wang, ―SessionMagnifier: A simple approach to secure and convenient kiosk browsing,‖ in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Computing, 2009, pp. 125–134, ACM.

[2] S. Chiasson, A. Forget, E. Stobert, P. C. van Oorschot, and R. Biddle, ―Multiple password interference in text passwords and click-based graphical passwords,‖ in CCS ’09: Proc. 16th ACM Conf. Computer Communications Security, New York, 2009, pp. 500–511, ACM.

[3] K. M. Everitt, T. Bragin, J. Fogarty, and T. Kohno, ―A comprehensive study of frequency, interference, and training of multiple graphical passwords,‖ in CHI ’09: Proc. 27th Int. Conf. Human Factors Computing Systems, New York, 2009, pp. 889–898, ACM.

[4] S. Garriss, R. Cáceres, S. Berger, R. Sailer, L. van Doorn, and X. Zhang, ―Trustworthy and personalized computing on public kiosks,‖ in Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications Services, 2008, pp. 199–210, ACM.

[5] R. Biddle, S. Chiasson, and P. van Oorschot, ―Graphical passwords: Learning from the first twelve years,‖ in ACM Computing Surveys, Carleton Univ., 2010.

[6] T. Holz, M. Engelberth, and F. Freiling, ―Learning more about the underground economy:Acase-study of keyloggers and dropzones,‖ Proc. Computer Security ESORICS 2009.

[7] M. Weir, S. Aggarwal, M. Collins, and H. Stern, ―Testing metrics for password creation policies by attacking large sets of revealed passwords,‖ in Proc. 17th ACM Conf. Computer Communications Security, New York, 2010, pp. 162–175, ACM.

[8] D. Wendlandt, D. G. Andersen, and A. Perrig, ―Perspectives: Improving ssh-style host authentication with multi-path probing,‖ in Proc. USENIX 2008 Annu. Tech. Conf., Berkeley, CA, 2008, pp. 321– 334, USENIX Association.

[9] P. van Oorschot, A. Salehi-Abari, and J. Thorpe, ―Purely automated attacks on passpoints-style graphical passwords,‖ IEEE Trans. Information Forensics Security, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 393–405, Sep. 2010.

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8.

Use of Maize Husk Fly Ash as an Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Water

Authors: Jadhav A S, Jadhav M V

Abstract— In the present study batch adsorption process was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Maize husk fly ash (MH fly ash) as an adsorbent for removing fluoride from water. During the experimental work, effects of some of the major parameters of adsorption, viz. Contact time, pH , Adsorbent dose and Stirring rate on removal efficiency were studied and optimized. The equilibrium was attained in 120 minutes, Maximum removal efficiency was obtained at pH value of 2, optimum adsorbent dose was found to be 2.0 g/50 mL, optimum stirring rate was obtained at 250 rpm. Maximum fluoride removal was observed to be 86% at optimum conditions. Freudlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Redlich-Perterson isotherms were plotted and best suited model was found.

Keywords— Maize husk fly ash, Fluoride removal, Batch study, Adsorption isotherms.

References-

[1] Bhaumik R, Mondal NK, Das B, Roy P, Pal KC, Das C, Banerjee A and Datta JK, “Eggshell Powder as an Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies”, E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 9, No.3, 2011, 1457-1480.

[2] Tembhurkar A. R and Dongre Shilpa, “Studies On Fluoride Removal Using Adsorption Process”, Journal Of Environ. Science & Engg.Vol.No.3, July2006, 151-156.

[3] Alagumuthu G, “fluoride sorption using cynodondactylon-based activated carbon”, Hem. ind. 65 (1) 23–35 (2011), 23-35.

[4] Jamode A V., Sapkal V. S. and Jamode V. S., “Defluoridation of water using inexpensive adsorbents”, The Journal of Indian Institute of Science, 84, 2004, 163-171.

[5] Murugan M. and Subramanian E., “Studies on defluoridation of water by Tamarind seed, an unconventional biosorbent”, The Journal of Water and Health, 2006, 453-461.

[6] Shrivastava Brajesh K. and A. Vani, “Comparative Study of Defluoridation Technologies in India”, Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 23, No.1, 2009, 269-274.

[7] Karthikeyan G, Apparao B V and Meenakshi S, “Defluoridation Properties of Activated Alumina”, the 2nd International Workshop on Fluorosis Prevention and Defluoridation of Water, 78-82.

[8] Chidambaram S, “Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials”, Technical Note, ISSN 0378-4738 = Water SA Vol. 29 No. 3, 1996, 339-344

. [9] Dissanayake C. B, “The fluoride problem in the groundwater of Sri Lanka”, environmental management and health. International Journal of Environmental Health Studies, 38, 1991, 137–156.

[10] Kaseva M. E., “Optimization of regenerated bone char for fluoride removal in drinking water: a case study in Tanzania”, Journal of Water and Health, Vol. 4, No.1, 2011, pp 139-147.

[11] Nair D.G., Jagadish K.S., and Fraaij A, “Reactive Pozzolanas from Rice Husk Ash: An Alternative to Cement for Rural Housing”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, 2006, pp 1062-1071.

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9.

Tuning of output feedback UPFC Controller parameters using ICA

Authors: M. R. Banaei, Mehdi Mirzaey

Abstract— –In this paper a method for the design of output feedback controller for unified power flow controller (UPFC) to damp low frequency oscillations in a weakly connected system is investigated. The selection of output feedback gains for the UPFC controller is converted to an optimization problem with the Multi objective function which is solved by an imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed controller on damping low frequency oscillations is tested through eigenvalue analysis and time domain simulation under three loading conditions and input mechanical torque disturbances. For comparison purposes, a LQR controller is designed. The simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK software show that the tuned ICA based output feedback controller has an excellent capability in damping low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Keywords — UPFC, low frequency oscillation damping, ICA.

References-

[1] H. F. Wang, ―Damping Function of Unified Power Flow Controller,‖ IEEE Transaction Proceeding-Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 146, No. 1, pp. 81-87, January 1999.

[2] Chuan Qin, Wen Juan Du, H.F. Wang, Qun Xu and Ping Ju, ―Controllable Parameter Region and Variable-Parameter Design of Decoupling Unified Power Flow Controller,‖ Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition: Asia and Pacific, IEEE/PES, Dalian, China, 2005

.[3] Song YH, Johns AT, Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). UK: IEE Press; 1999.

[4] Nabavi-Niaki, A. Iravani MR, ―Steady-State and Dynamic Models of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for Power System Studies,‖ IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, 1996, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 1937–1943.

[5] H. F. Wang, ―A Unified Model for the Analysis of FACTS Devices in Damping Power System Oscillations – part III: Unified Power Flow Controller,‖ IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, 2000, vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 978–983.

[6] H. F. Wang, ―Application of Modeling UPFC into Multi-Machine Power Systems,‖ IEE Proceeding-Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 146, No. 3, pp. 306-312, 1999.

[7] Dash PK, Mishra S, Panda G., ―A Radial Basis Function Neural Network Controller for UPFC,‖ IEEE Transaction on Power System, 2000, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 1293–1299.

[8] Vilathgamuwa M, Zhu X, Choi SS., ―A Robust Control Method to Improve the Performance of a Unified Power Flow Controller,‖ Electric Power System Research, 2000, Vol. 55, pp. 103–111.

[9] Pal BC, ―Robust Damping of Inter-area Oscillations with Unified Power Flow Controller,‖ IEE Proceeding-Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 149, No. 6, pp. 733-738, 2002.

[10] M. R. Banaei, A. Hashemi, ―An Adaptive UPFC Based Stabilizer for Damping of Low Frequency Oscillation,‖ Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 197-208, 2010.

[11] Chen XR, Pahalawaththa NC, Annakkage UD, Cumble CS, ―Design of Decentralized Output Feedback TCSC Damping Controllers by Using Simulated Annealing,‖ IEE Proceeding-Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 145, No. 5, pp. 553-558, 1998.

[12] Chen XR, Pahalawaththa NC, Annakkage UD, Cumble CS, ―Output Feedback TCSC Controllers to Improve Damping of Meshed Multimachine Power Systems,‖ IEE Proceeding-Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 144, No. 3, pp. 243-248, 1997.

[13] E. Atashpaz-Gargari, C. Lucas, ―Imperialist competitive algorithm: An algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition‖, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2007.

[14] I. Tsoulos, D. Gavrilis, E. Glavas, ―Neural network construction and training using grammatical evolution‖, Science Direct Neurocomputing Journal, Vol.72, Issues 1-3, December 2008, pp. 269-277.

[15] E. Atashpaz, F. Hashemzadeh, R. Rajabioun, C. Lucas, ―Colonial competitive algorithm: a novel approach for PID controller design in MIMO distillation column process‖, Intl. Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, Vol.1, Issue 3, 2008, pp.337 – 355.

[16] Ramin Rajabioun, E. Atashpaz, C. Lucas, ―Colonial Competitive Algorithm as a Tool for Nash Equilibrium Point Achievement‖, Lecture Notes In Computer Science; Vol. 5073, Proc. of the Intl. conf. on Computational Science and Its Applications, Part II, 2008, pp.680-695.

[17] B. Oskouyi, E. Atashpaz-Gargari, N. Soltani, C. Lucas, ―Application of Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for Materials Property Characterization from Sharp Indentation Test‖, International Journal of Engineering Simulation, 2009; pages:9.

[18] A. Khabbazi, E. Atashpaz and C. Lucas, ―Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for Minimum Bit Error Rate Beam forming‖, International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation (IJBIC),2009; pages:9.

[19] A. M. Jasour, E. Atashpaz, C. Lucas, ―Vehicle Fuzzy Controller Design Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm‖, Second Iranian Joint Congress on Fuzzy and Intelligent Systems, Tehran, Iran, 2008.

[20] H. shayeghi, H. A. shayanfar, S. jalilzadeh, A. safari, ―A PSO Based Unified Power Flow Controller for Damping of Power System Oscillations‖, Energy conversion and management, 2009, vol. 50, p.p. 2583-2592.

[21] Abido M.A., Al-Awami A.T., Abdel-Magid Y.L. ―Power system stability enhancement using simultaneous design of damping controllers and internal controllers of a unified power flow controller,‖ IEEE PES General Meeting, June 2006; pages:8.

[22] Lee S. ―Optimal Decentralized Design for Output-Feedback Power System Stabilizers,‖ IEE Proceeding-Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 152, No. 4, pp. 494-502, 2005.

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10.

Study of Thermal Generating Units of Multi-area Power System Connected to Grid and its Stability

Authors: Chandra Mohan Khan, Sukumar Chandra Konar, Chandan Kumar Chanda

Abstract— This paper presents an approach of the theory and practical applications involved in studding stability of a interconnected power system. It develops the necessary circuits and mathematical models as required in addition to describing the important role that modern computers can play in improving power-system performance. In an interconnected power system the change in real power affect mainly the system frequency, while variation of reactive power changes the voltage magnitude. Load frequency control loop controls the real power and it is important with the growth of interconnected systems and reactive power (or voltage magnitude) can be controlled by regulating excitation of alternator. In this paper, especially we are studying the load frequency control with variation of power of multi areas interconnected power system by using MATLAB SIMULINK technique.

Keywords- Thermal generating unit, computer programming, MATLAB SIMULINK, Stability study with controller and without controller.

References-

[1] J.VAN AMERONGEN, H.W.M BARENDS,P.J.BUYS AND G.HODERD “ Modeling and control of 180 MW Power system” .IEEE Transaction on Automatic control,vol,AC-31 No.9 September 1986.

[2] O. P. Malik, G. S. Hope, Y. M. Gorski, V. A. Uskakov, and A. L. Rackevich, Experimental studies on adaptive microprocessor stabilizers for synchronous generators, in IFAC Power Syst. Power Plant Control, Beijing, China, 125–130, 1986.

[3] Y. Guo, D. J. Hill, and Y. Wang, Global transient stability and voltage regulation for power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 16(4), 678–688, 2001.

[4] K. T. Law, D. J. Hill, and N. R. Godfrey, “Robust co-ordinated AVR-PSS design,” IEEE Trans on Power Systems, 9(3), 1218–1225, 1994.

[5] I. Kamwa, R. Grondin, and Y. Hebert, Wide-area measurement based stabilizing control of large power systems: A decentralized hierarchical approach, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 16(1), 136–153, 2001.

[6] J. A. Momoh, Electric Power Distribution, Automation, Protection and Control. New York,NY: CRC, 2008.26. B. Pal and B. Chaudhuri, Robust Control in Power Systems. New York, NY: Springer, 2005.

[7] H. Bevrani and T. Hiyama, Power system dynamic stability and voltage regulation enhancement using an optimal gain vector, Control Eng. Pract., 16(9), 1109–1119, 2008.

[8] J. A. Pecas Lopes, N. Hatziargyriou, J. Mutale, et al., Integrating distributed generation into electric power systems: A review of drivers, challenges and opportunities, Electr. Power Syst.Res., 77, 1189–1203, 2007.

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11.

Hybrid Low Power Touch ECG Using Dry Metal Sensor And HRV Analysis Using MATLAB

Authors: S. Sowmiya, T. Jayanthi

Abstract— ECG or Electrocardiogram is the first and the foremost basic diagnostic tool for cardiovascular problems. Our main aim is to make the ECG circuit, which is noise free and wire free acquisition without causing discomfort to the patient. This can is achieved by dry metal electrodes that can be fixed on the patients bed handles or at wheelchairs. One of the main problems in ECG acquisition is the power line inference. This adds more noise to the signal and also a hazard to the patient. This can be overcome by battery source but it is economically not feasible for peripheral health care centres for providing UPS to setup the back-up power supply. Hence we have come out with a novel idea of constructing an ECG amplifier that is potentially driven by hybrid power i.e. solar and wind energy and also with easy signal acquisition by touch metal sensor that can perform effectively whenever there is power failure and also in cases of emergency. The electrodes used in this device are dry metal made of German silver, where patient keeps their thumbs on the sensor plate and the signal is acquired. A hybrid power driven ECG monitoring system is mainly developed for its applications in rural areas. The performance and functioning of the ECG remains uninterrupted irrespective of power failures. Moreover, it is a simple portable device that could be operated even in remote places. This ECG uses a battery to power the amplifier circuit which is charged by hybrid source. It can also be powered by the commercial AC power supply. By using PC interface, ECG is processed into the MATLAB for further processing like Heart Rate Variations (HRV) analysis in time domain and frequency domain.

Keywords— Dry metal electrodes for ECG acquisition, German silver, hybrid (solar and wind) power driven ECG, HRV analysis, touch ECG.

References-

[1] Long Yan and Hoi-Jun Yoo, ‘A Low-Power Portable ECG Touch Sensor with Two Dry Metal Contact Electrodes’. Journal of semiconductor technology and science, vol.10, no.4, December, 2010.

[2] Zeli Gao, Jie Wu, Jianli Zhou, Wei Jiang and Lihui Feng. ‘Design of ECG signal acquisition and processing system’ 2012 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology.

[3] S.A. Raza Naqvi, S.R. Khan, W. Hassan, and C. Yi. ‘Portable Low Cost Electrocardiogram Ambulatory Support System For Cardiologists’. 2012 IEEE Global High Tech Congress on Electronics.

[4] Parin Dedhia, Harsh Doshi, Mrunal Rane, Govinda Ahuja. ‘Low Cost Solar ECG with Bluetooth transmitter’. 2012 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICoBE), Penang, Malaysia, 27-28 February 2012.

[5] Prof. Lionel Tarassenko, Hilary Term 2012, Biomedical Instrumentation.

[6] ] John.R. Hampton. Edinburgh London New York Oxford Philadelphia, St Louis Sydney Toronto 2003, The ECG in practice.

[7] Mohammadreza Balouchestani, Kaamran Raahemifar and Sridhar Krishnan. Proceedings of 2013 ICME-International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering, Low Sampling-rate Approach for ECG Signals with Compressed Sensing Theory, May 25 - 28, Beijing, China.

[8] ] Liang-Hung Wang, Tsung-Yen Chen, Shuenn-Yuh Lee, TaiHsuan Yang, Shi-Yan Huang, Jen-Hao Wu, and Kuang-Hao Lin. 978-1-4673-5936-8/13 ©2013 IEEE, A Wireless Electrocardiogram Detection for Personal Health Monitoring.

[9] Anucha Punapung , Suradej Tretriluxana, Kitiphol Chitsakul. The 2011 Biomedical Engineering International Conference (BMEiCON-2011), A Design of Configurable ECG Recorder Module.

[10] Ju-Won Lee and Gun-Ki Lee. International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 137-142, March 2005, Design of an Adaptive Filter with a Dynamic Structure for ECG Signal Processing.

[11] J. Parak, J. Havlik. Department of Circuit Theory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, ] ECG signal processing and heart rate frequency detection methods.

[12] Valtino X. Afonso, ECG QRS Detection.

[13] Pandelis Perakakisa, Mateus Joffilyb, Michael Taylor, Pedro Guerra, Jaime Vila. computer methods and programs in biomedicine 2 0 1 0.

[14] KARDIA: A Matlab software for the analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals.

[15] Juha-Pekka Niskanen, Mika P. Tarvainen, Perttu O. Ranta-aho, and Pasi A. Karjalainen. University of Kuopio Department of Applied Physics Report Series ISSN 0788-4672, Software for advanced HRV analysis.

[16] CleveLabs Laboratory Course System – Teacher Edition.

[17] Juha-Pekka Niskanen, Mika P. Tarvainen, Perttu O. Ranta-aho, and Pasi A. Karjalainen, University of Kuopio Department of Applied Physics Report Series ISSN 0788-4672, Software for advanced HRV analysis.

[18] J. Parak, J. Havlik, Department of Circuit Theory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague. ECG signal processing and heart rate frequency detection methods.

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12.

Enhanced Data Replication based on Demand to Improve Data Availability in MANETs

Authors: Priya K G, Mujeebudheen Khan, Preetha K G

Abstract—The mobile ad hoc network is a wide research area as it exploits a variety of applications. Manet is mainly used for specific type of applications. The network is formed without any infrastructure and it has the ability to configure itself. The topology changes dynamically as the nodes move frequently and it may leads to the network partitions. The data’s available on one node cannot be accessed from another node if it is on another partition. The data availability can be increased by applying data replication since the possibility of finding one copy of data item is higher. The data items are replicated on to the mobile node according to the data accessibility. In this paper the availability can be further increased by using the shortest path algorithm for finding the data item.

Keywords—access frequency, data availability, data replication, MANET, network partition.

References-

[1] Priya. K. G, Khan. M, and Preetha. K. G, ―Demand based data replication in MANET,‖ 3 rd International conference on advances in computing and communication (ICACC), pp-441-444, August 2013.

[2] Y. Zhang, L. Yin, J. Zhao and G. Cao, ―Balancing the trade-offs between data availability and query delay in MANET,‖ IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol.23, No.4, April 201

[3] Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Working Group Charter, Chaired by Joseph Macker and M. Scott Corson, http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manetcharter. html.

[4] P. Padmanabhan, L. Gruenwald, A. Vallur and M. Atiquzzaman, ―A survey of data replication techniques for mobile ad hoc network databases,‖ The VLDB Journal, vol. 17, pp. 1143-1164, 2008.

[5] T. Hara, ―Effective replica allocation in ad hoc networks for improving data accessibility‖ IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.

[6] A. C. Paul, C.C. Vignesh and S. Karthik, ―Reputation based storage space allocation for balancing the tradeoffs between data availability and query delay in MANET,‖ International journal of advanced research in computer science and software engineering, vol.2, issue 8, August 2012.

[7] T. Hara and S. K. Madria, ―Data replication for improving data accessibility in ad hoc networks,‖ IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1515–1532, 2006.

[8] J.L. Huang and M.S. Chen, ―On the effect of group mobility to data replication in ad hoc networks,‖ IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 492–507, 2006.

[9] L. Qiu, V. N. Padmanabhan and G. M. Voelker, ―On the placement of web server replicas,‖ IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.

[10] V. Ramany and P. Bertok, ―Replication of location-dependent data in mobile ad hoc networks,‖ ACM MobiDE, pp. 39–46, 2008. [11] A. Detti, L. Bracciale and F. Fedi, ―Robust data replication algorithm for MANETs with obstacles and node failures‖, IEEE, ICC, 2010.

[12] P. Padmanabhan and L. Gruenwaald, ―DREAM: A data replication technique for real time mobile ad-hoc network databases‖, 22nd International conference on data engineering (ICDE’06).

[13] T. Hara, ―Replica allocation in ad hoc networks with periodic data update,‖ International Conference on Mobile Data Management (MDM), 2002.

[14] T. Hara and S. Madria, ―Consistency management strategies for data replication in mobile ad hoc networks,‖ IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no.7, pp 950-967, 2009.

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13.

Optimized Image Steganography using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)

Authors: Parul, Manju, Harish Rohil

Abstract--Steganography is a term used for covered writing. Steganography can be applied on different file formats, such as audio, video, text, image etc. In image steganography, data in the form of image is hidden under some image by using transformations such as ztransformation, integer wavelet transformation, DWT etc and then sent to the destination. At the destination, the data is extracted from the cover image using the inverse transformation. This paper presents a new approach for image steganography using DWT. The cover image is divided into higher and lower frequency sub-bands and data is embedded into higher frequency sub-bands. Arnold Transformation is used to increase the security. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB 7.0 and evaluated on the basis of PSNR, capacity and correlation. The proposed approach results in high capacity image steganography as compared to existing approaches.

Keywords-- Image Steganography, PSNR, Discrete Wavelet Transform.

References-

[1] A.A. Shejul and U.L. Kulkarni, “A DWT based Approach for Steganography Using Biometrics”, IEEE International Conference on Data Storage and Data Engineering, pp 39-43, 2010.

[2] Tanmay Bhattacharya, Nilanjan Dey and S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri, “A Session based Multiple Image Hiding Technique using DWT and DCT”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Vol. 38, No.5, pp 18-21, 2012.

[3] Ming-Shing Hsieh, Din-Chang Tsebg and Yong-Huai Huang, “Hiding Digital Watermark Using Multiresolution Wavelet Transformation”, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp 875-882, 2001.

[4] M.F. Tolba, M.A. Ghonemy, I.A. Taha and A. S. Khalifa, “Using Integer Wavelet Transformation in Colored ImageSteganography”, IJICIS, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp 75-85, 2004.

[5] Po-Yueh Chen and Hung-Ju Lin, “A DWT Approach for Image Steganography”, International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp 275-290, 2006.

[6] Ali Al-Ataby and Fawzi Al-Naima, “A Modified High Capacity Image Steganography Technique Based on Wavelet Transform”, the International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp 358-364, 2010.

[7] Amitava Nag, Sushanta Biswas, Debasree Sarkar and Partha Pratim Sarkar, “A Novel Technique for Image Steganography Based on DWT and Huffman Encoding”, International Journal of Computer Science and Security, (IJCSS), Vol. 4, No. 6, pp 561- 570, 2010.

[8] K B Shiva Kumar, K B Raja and Sabyasachi Pattnaik, “Hybrid Domain in LSB Steganography”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Vol. 19, No.7, pp 35-40, 2011.

[9] K B Shiva Kumar, Khasim T, K B Raja , Sabyasachi Pattnaik and R. K. Chhotaray, “Dual Transform Technique for Robust Steganography”, International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Systems (ICCICS), IEEE Computer Society, pp 310-314, 2011.

[10] Elham Ghasemi, Jamshid Shanbehzadeh and Nima Fassihi, “High Capacity Image Steganography usingWavelet Transform and Genetic Algorithm”, International Multiconference of Engineering and Computer Scientist (IMECS), Vol. 1, pp. 1-4, 2011.

[11] Tanmay Bhattacharya, Nilanjan Dey and S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri, “A Novel Session Based Dual Steganographic Technique Using DWT and Spread Spectrum”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), Vol.1, No. 1, pp-157-161, 2011.

[12] Anjali A. Shejul and Umesh L. Kulkarni, “A Secure Skin Tone based Steganography Using Wavelet Transform”, International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, February, pp. 16-22, 2011.

[13] Ioannidou A., Halkidis S. T. and Stephanides G., “ A Novel Technique for Image Steganography based on a High Payload Method and Edge Detection’’, Expert Systems with Applications, Elsevier, Vol. 39, pp. 11517-11524, 2012.

[14] Divya Saxena, “Digital Watermarking Algorithm based on Singular Value Decomposition and Arnold Transform”, International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering(IJECSE)”, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 22-27,

[15] Mei-Ching Chen, Sos S. Agaian and C. L. Philip Chen, “Generalized Collage Steganography on Images”, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC), pp 1043-1047, 2008.

[16] T. Narasimmalou and Allen Joseph. R, “Optimized Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Steganography”, IEEE International Conference on Advance Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT), pp 88-91, 2012.

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14.

Solid Waste Dumping Site Suitability Analysis For Chengalpettu Town Using

Authors: Rinsitha. T, Manjubashini. A, . Satheesh Herbert Singh. D

Abstract-- Solid waste dumping is a common problem in all the developing countries. Chengalpattu taluk have no proper solid waste dumping system. The main objective of our study is to prepare a suitable location for dumping solid waste for Chengalpattu taluk. The base map of the study area have prepared from toposheet and converted into digital format. Geology, Land use , soil, tanks and geomorphology maps of the study area are prepared from satellite imagery. The rank and weightage are determined by pairwise comparison matrix for various thematic maps and overlaid using GIS. The overlaid map is categorized as unsuitable, less suitable, moderately suitable and most suitable. The most suitable area is considered to be the best site for solid waste dumping.

Keywords-- Overlay analysis, Pairwise comparison matrix, Solid waste, Suitable, Thematic maps.

References-

[1] Akbari D. 2011 Appointment of appropriate sites for waste disposal by GIS. Marrakech, Morocco.

[2] Chang N, Parvathinathan G, Breeden JB. 2008 Combining GIS with fuzzy multi criteria decision-making for landfill sitting in a fastgrowing urban region. J. Environ. Manage. 87(1):139-153.

[3] Ersoy H, Bulut F. 2009 Spatial and multi-criteria decision analysisbased methodology for landfill site selection in growing urban regions Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon. Turk. Waste Manage. Res. 7(4):56-67.

[4] T Saaty TL. 1980 The analytic hierarchy process, Mcgraw-hill. New York.

[5] Sha’ Ato R, Aboho SY, Oketunde FO, Eneji IS, Unazi G, Agwa S. 2007 Survey of solid waste generation and composition in a rapidly growing urban area in central Nigeria. Waste Manage. 27: 352-358.

[6] Visvanathan C, Glawe U. 2006 Domestic solid waste management in south Asian countries. A comparative analysis.

[7] Wiley J, Sons L. 2009 Essential image processing and GIS for Remote Sensing. Imperial College London, UK

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15.

Role of RDF in Semantic Web

Authors: Pallavi Grover, Sonal Chawla

Abstract— Information on web exists in decentralized way. Semantic Web is seen as the evolving extension of web which will hold information in machine understandable for. This paper has threefold objective. Firstly the paper talks about RDF model helps in representation of distributed information on web. It then focuses on RDF Model and Schema. Secondly the paper throws light on RDF structure, use of XML for representing information in distributed environment and how the two are complementary to each other. It also discusses the available formats of RDF. Lastly it highlights how RDF provides a mechanism to authenticate the information available on web.

Keywords—RDF, RDF Schema, URI, RDF Reification, Semantic Web, XML.

References-

[1] W3C Recommendation, RDF Primer (2004), http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/

[2] http://www.w3schools.com/xml/xml_whatis.asp

[3] Brickley and R. Guha, “Resource Description Framework (RDF) Schema Specification,” W3C Candidate Recom-mendation, Mar. 2000; available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/CR-RDF-schema20000327.

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML

[5] http://www.w3.org/TR/PR-rdf-syntax/

[6] http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/WD-rdf-syntax-19981008/

[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reification S.Ramanujam. A.Gupta, L.Khan, S.Seida, B.Thuraisingham , “ A relational Wrapper for RDF Reification” http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642- 02056-8_13

[8] O.Harting, “Provence information in the wed of data”

[9] http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/

[10] Fröhlich, B. and Plate, J. 2000. The cubic mouse: a new device for three-dimensional input. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

[11] Fröhlich, B. and Plate, J. 2000. The cubic mouse: a new device for three-dimensional input. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

86-89
16.

Hybrid Cryptography Algorithm Based on Prime Factorization

Authors: Indiver Purohit, Raj Kumar Somani

Abstract— The security of RSA public key cryptosystem is based on the assumption that factoring of a large number (modulus) is difficult. In RSA if one can factor modulus into its prime numbers then the private key is also detected and hence the security of the cryptosystem is broken. The Rabin cryptosystem is an asymmetric cryptographic technique, whose security, like that of RSA, is related to the difficulty of factorization. So in this paper a Rabin over RSA public key cryptosystem called Hybrid cryptography Algorithm based on Prime Factorization (HCAPF) is presented. This paper also presents comparison among Rabin, RSA and HCAPF cryptosystems in respect of security and performance. [3,4]

Keywords—GCD: Greatest Common Divisor, HCAPF: Hybrid Cryptography Algorithm based on Prime Factorization, MRR: Modified Rabin over RSA, PKC: Public Key Cryptosystem, PKI: Public Key Infrastructure, RSA: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman.

References-

[1] William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security”, ISBN 81-7758-011-6, Pearson Education, Third Edition, pages 42-62,121-144,253-297.

[2] Atul Kahate, “Cryptography and Network Security”, ISBN10:0-07-064823-9, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, India, Second Edition, pages 38-62,152-165,205- 240,340-370.

[3] R. Rivest, A. Shamir and L. Adleman. “A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems”, Communications of the ACM, 21 (2), February 1978, pages 120-126.

[4] Bryan Poe, “Factoring the RSA Algorithm”, Mat / CSC 494, April 27, 2005, pages 1-6.

[5] Alfred Menezes, “Evaluation of Security Level of Cryptography: RSA-OAEP, RSA-PSS, RSA Signature”, University of Waterloo, 2001, pages 4-13.

[6] Diffie, M Hellman, “New Directions in Cryptography”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol 22, 1976.

[7] DI Management Services Pvt Limited, “RSA Algorithm”, ABN 78 083 210 584 Sydney, Australia, pages 1-20.

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17.

Porting an EtherCAT Slave Stack for PLC I/O Module

Authors: Piyush N Malpe, Satyajit Pangaonkar

Abstract— This research work covers the various factors to be considered for the EtherCAT slave stack porting to PLC input/output module. It covers the different aspects of EtherCAT slave module implementation, EtherCAT functional principle and slave stack integration in the user application. It also details the role of EtherCAT in PLC backplane communication as well as real time capabilities of EtherCAT networks. Ethernet for Control Automation Technology (EtherCAT) - is an open source, relatively high speed fieldbus system based on Ethernet basics. The motivation for EtherCAT development was to improve Ethernet capabilities so that it can be applied to automation applications which require real time operations and low component costs. Capability of EtherCAT to use Ethernet or EBUS/Low voltage differential signaling as a physical layer opens the door for EtherCAT to be used for backplane bus communication.

Keywords— EtherCAT, CANopen Over EtherCAT (CoE), PLC, Backplane, Fieldbus, Protocol, Real Time Ethernet, I/O Module

References-

[1] EtherCAT enabled Advanced Control Architecture. Martin Rostan and Joseph E. Stubbs EtherCAT Technology Group,Ostendstr. 196 90482 Nuremberg, Germany. Dmitry Dzilno Applied Materials Inc. 2841 Scott Blvd.Santa Clara, CA 95050 USA. ASMC 2010

[2] The Relevant Research Of CoE Protocol In EtherCAT Industrial Ethernet. Yongming Chen ,Hua Chen ,Mingzhong Zhang Department of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering Xiamen University Xiamen, P.R. China. Yin Li CNC Department Yunyuan CNC Tech,CO.,LTD Zhangzhou, P.R. China

[3] An EtherCAT based Control System for Human-Robot Cooperation Il-Kyun Jung, Sun Lim, Korea Electronic Technology Institute(KETI) 401-402, Bucheon Technopark, Yakdae-dong, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, South of Korea.

[4] Huan Ji,Xiao Wenlei ,and Liu Yanqiang, "Redundancy and hot swap technology in industrial Ethernet EtherCA T,"Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astonautics,Beijing.Vo1.35,N02, PP.158-161,February 2009.

[5] A Performance Analysis of EtherCAT and PROFINET IRT, Conference paper by, Gunnar Prytz Norway. 13th IEEE international Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation.

[6] ET1200 Datasheet Version 1.7 (Beckhoff)

[7] High Speed Industrial Ethernet for Semiconductor Equipments. Martin Rostan SEMI Technology Symposium, Innovations in Semiconductor Manufacturing, July 2006

[8] Limits of Increasing the Performance of Industrial Ethernet Protocols, Juergen Jasperneite, Markus Schumacher, inIT - Institute Industrial IT, LuH University of Applied Sciences 1-4244-0826- 1/07/$20.00 © 2007 IEEE

[9] Yang Xianhui, Networked control systems-Fieldbus technology. Tsinghua University Press: Beijing, July 2008, P .121. [10] CANopen, www.can-cia.org [11] www.ethercat.org

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18.

Effective Data Retrieval Mechanism Using AML within the Web Based Join Framework

Authors: Usha Nandini D, Anish Gracias J

Abstract— A vast amount of assorted information are posted and retrieved on web by its users and administrators. For the users of web, the main issue is to browse through the exact data they are looking for. This web content mining has attracted the interest of researchers towards developing an efficient technique for retrieving the exact web contents for users query. There are several techniques in existence, which provides a reasonably good performance in web content mining. But it is clearly evident that, these existing techniques could be replaced by improved web content mining techniques, which could be utilized for real-world applications. Approximate Membership Localization (AML) has been used previously to retrieve true matches for clean references. In this paper, an improved AML technique is used for extracting those true matches for clean reference which are non-overlapped. The main objective of this improved AML introduced in this paper is to retrieve exact true matches for clean reference and also avoid the redundant or overlapped matches. This improved AML combines two effective algorithms namely, stemming algorithm and p-prune algorithm to achieve its objective in web content mining. The simulation results suggests that this proposed improved AML retrieves more exact match for clean reference with less computational complexity and also reduces redundancy among retrieved true match for clean reference.

Keywords— Approximate Membership Localization (AML), web content mining, stop-word, Stemming algorithm, P-Prune algorithm.

References-

[1] Eleni Mangina and John Kilbride, “Evaluation of keyphrase extraction algorithm and tiling process for a document/resource recommender within e-learning environments”, Computers & Education, Vol. 50, pp. 807–820, 2008.

[2] Samhaa R. El-Beltagy and Ahmed Rafea, “KP-Miner: A keyphrase extraction system for English and Arabic documents”, Information Systems, Vol. 34, pp. 132– 144, 2009.

[3] Yashaswini Hegde, Shubha Kadambe and Prashantha Naduthota, “Suffix Stripping Algorithm for Kannada Information Retrieval”, International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCl), 2013.

[4] Zhixu Li, Laurianne Sitbon, Liwei Wang, Xiaofang Zhou and Xiaoyong Du, “AML: Efficient Approximate Membership Localization within a Web-Based Join Framework”, IEEE Transactions On Knowledge And Data Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 2, February 2013.

[5] S. Chaudhuri, V. Ganti, and D. Xin, “Exploiting Web Search to Generate Synonyms for Entities,” Proceedings of 18th International Conference World Wide Web (WWW ), pp. 151-160, 2009.

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19.

Data Logging on Google Drive Spreadsheet

Authors: Swapnil R. Katre, Jyoti Giri

Abstract—the growing demand of intelligent embedded devices in day-to-life has also increase the demand of monitoring and managing data provided by it. So, a solution to connect and store data on server space, which is link to the user Gmail services, could prove to be a great user friendly step. This solution will address the challenge of logging, securing and accessing data from remote device for Analysis. In this paper, an embedded sensor device will connect to the Google Drive. The sensor data will be uploaded to Google Spreadsheet using user credentials. The uploaded data can then be able to view, edit across the globe. Using different Google featured tools linked in Google Drive; data can be easily analyzed and represented. As Google interface are user friendly and used by many people it can be easier to adapt. Further the data can be linked with Cloud computing services, which uses technology like Big Data, Hadoop, etc for analyzing.

Keywords —Data Logger, Google Drive, IoT, RTOS MQX, MK60FN1M0VLQ12.

References-

[1] Pengzhi Xu , Weimin Zheng ; Yongwei Wu ; Xiaomeng Huang ; Chuncong Xu, “Enabling Cloud Storage to Support Traditional Applications”, ChinaGrid Conference (ChinaGrid), 2010 Fifth Annual, pp. 67 – 172

[2] Jiabin Tsai, Wei-Tek ; Tempe, AZ, U.S. ; Qi, Guanqiu ; Chen, Yinong ,” Choosing cost-effective configuration in cloud storage”, 2013 IEEE Eleventh International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems (ISADS), 6-8 March 2013, pp. 1 - 8

[3] IEEE Paper – “Real-Time Smart Meter with Embedded Web Server Capability”, Giuseppe Del Prete, Carmine Landi, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli Via Roma, 29 - 81031- Aversa (CE) Italy.

107-110
20.

Dynamic Analysis of Beat-up Mechanism for High Speed Shuttle Loom

Authors: Neepa M. Patel, G.M. Karkar

Abstract— To increase the productivity of clothes without selvage, shuttle loom is necessary, which produce clothes at lower cost. The only drawback of shuttle loom is its low speed, current shuttle looms are running at 120 ppm(pick per minute), and due to this its productivity is less. Therefore, in this paper kinematic and dynamic analysis has been done for present and proposed mechanism, to design high speed Beatup mechanism, which is 3rd primary operation of shuttle loom. Basically beat-up mechanism is the reciprocating motion of the reed which is used to push every weft thread to the fabric fell.

Keywords—Beat-up mechanism, shuttle loom, sley mechanism, weft insertion period.

References-

[1] R. Eren and A. Aydemir. “An Approach to Kinematic Design of Four-bar Sley Drive Mechanisms in Weaving”, The Journal of The Text.Inst., Turkey, 2004. P 193-205.

[2] Youjiang Wang and Hui Sun,” computer Aided Analysis of Loom Beating-up Mechanism”, The Journal of The Text.Inst., 1998. P 631- 634.

[3] H.I.Celik & M.Topalbekiroglu, ”Kinematic analysis and synthesis of the beat up mechanism for Handmade Carpet loom”, The Journal of The Text.Inst., Turkey, 2010.p.882-889.

[4] H.I.Celik &M.Topalbekiroglu.”Kinematic analysis of the beat up mechanism for handmade carpet looms”, Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research,(Vol.34),Turkey.2009.pp. 129-136.

[5] K.J.Waldron & G.L.Kinzel.”Kinematic,Dynamics and Design of machinery”,2 nd edition,Library of Congress Cataloging-inPublication Data,2004.Chap.5

[6] Jack T. Kimbrell,’Kinematic Analysis and Synthesis’, Singapore, 1991 Chap.3,4.p.69-71,96-99.

[7] John J. Uicker, JR, Gordon R. Pennock, Joseph E. Shigley, ‘ Theory of Machines and Mechanisms’ ,3rd edition, Oxford University Press,2011.p.466 [8] R. L. Norton, ‘Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery’, 1st edition, Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.A.2010.p.555.

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21.

A Novel UWB Planar Cross Slotted Monopole with Complementary Split Ring Resonators for Multi Band Communication and Circular Polarization

Authors: Swati Suryendu, Sudha Nair

Abstract— Modern wireless systems is normally used as personal communication standards, continuously demands new antenna designing with better performance in order to increase wide bandwidth and, in some case, to allow multiband behaviour. In these very purpose a paper is presented here with design of an monopole antenna structure, its parameters, and its frequency domain analysis have been investigated to show its capability as an effective radiating element, where effect of asymmetrical rectangular cross slot, which is centred to monopole axis, for circular polarisation on its resonance frequency is studied, and approach of micro strip split ring resonators (SRR) has been incorporated in ground plane to improve directivity, return loss and band widths of a single layer, single probe-fed circular disc micro strip patch antenna. The design has been described as FR-4 substrate with thickness of 1.6mm, dielectric constant of 4.6 and loss tangent 0.02. It is demonstrated through simulation using IE3D that the designed antenna exhibit low return loss, high directivity in certain bands of interest between 3.1 to 10.6 GHz and while varying the antenna parameters attention is also paid to obtained good axial ratio.

Keywords- Circular disc monopole, Circular polarization, Directional UWB antenna, Multi band antenna, Multi notch antenna, Split (Complementary) ring ground plane resonator.

References-

[1] “Federal Communications Commission Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules Regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems”, FCC, 2002, First Report and Order FCC, 02.V48.

[2] D. M. Pozar, “Microwave engineering”, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2005.

[3] C. A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory—Analysis and Design”, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2005.

[4] K.Chang, L.H.Hsieh, Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2004.

[5] J.-S. Row, C.-Y. Ai “Compact Design of Single-Feed Circularly Polarised Microstrip Antenna” IEEE Electronics Letters, vol.40, issue: 18, 2004, pp. 1093- 1094.

[6] J. Liang, C. C. Chiau, X. Chen, and C. G. Parini, “Analysis and design of UWB disc monopole antennas,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Seminar on Ultra Wideband Communications Technologies and System Design, Queen Mary, University of London, U.K., Jul. 2004, pp. 103–106

[7] Wen-Shyang Chen, Chun-Kun Wu, Kin-Lu Wong, "Compact Circularly-Polarised Circular Microstrip Antenna with Cross-Slot and Peripheral Cuts," IEEE Electronics Letters, vol. 34, issue 11, 1998 , pp.1040-1041.

[8] New Planar Dual-Mode Filter Using Cross-Slotted Patch Resonator for Simultaneous Size and Loss Reduction Lei Zhu, Pierre-Marie Wecowski, and Ke Wu IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 47, NO. 5, MAY 1999.

[9] “Printed circular disc monopole antenna for ultra wideband applications,” Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 20, Sep. 2004

[10] Equivalent circuit model for split ring resonators and complementary split ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines, Juan Domingo Baena, jordi Bonache, Richard Marques Silero, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 53, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

[11] K. Chang and L. H. Hsieh, Microw. Ring Circuits and Related Structures, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 2004.

[12] Y. Zhang, W. Hong, C. Yu, Z.-Q. Kuai, Y.-D. Don, and J.-Y. Zhou, “Planar ultra wide band antennas with multiple notched bands based on etched slots on the patch and/or Split ring resonators on the feed line,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 56, pp. 3063– 3068, 2008.

[13] Integrated Planar Monopole Antenna With Micro strip Resonators Having Band-Notched Characteristics Dong-Zo Kim, Wang-Ik Son, Won-Gyu Lim, Han-Lim Lee, and Jong-Won Yu, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 58, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2010

[14] F. Martin, F. Falcone ,J. Bonache, T. Lopetegi, R. Marques,and M. Sorolla, “A new spilt ring resonator based left hand coplanner waveguide”,Appl, .Phys.Lett., vol.83, pp. 4652-4654,2003.

[15] F. Martin, F. Falcone ,J. Bonache, T. Lopetegi, R. Marques, M. Sorolla, “Miniaturized coplanar waveguide stopband filters based on bi-layer multiple tuned split ring resonators”, IEEE Microw . Wireless Compon. Lett., vol 13, no.12, pp. 511-513, Dec.2003.

[16] Electrically Small Resonators for Planar Meta material, Microwave Circuit and Antenna Design: A Comparative Analysis .Miguel Durán-Sindreu, Jordi Naqui, Ferran Paredes, Jordi Bonache and Ferran Martín Appl. Sci. 2012, 2, 375-395; doi:10.3390/app2020375 applied sciences ISSN 2076-3417

[17] RAKHESH SINGH KSHETRIMAYUM, SRIDHAR KALLAPUDI AND S S KARTHIKEYAN, IETE Technical Review Vol 24, No 6, November-December 2007, pp 463-474

[18] J D Beana, J Bonache, F Martin, R Marques, F Falcone, T Lopetegi, M A G Laso, J Garcia-Garcia, I Gil, M F Portillo & M Sorolla, Equivalent-Circuit models for Split-Ring Resonators and Complementary Split-Ring Resonators coupled to planar transmission lines, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory and Tech, vol 53, no 4, Apr 2005.

[19] IE3D version 10.2, Zeland Corp., Freemont, CA, USA

[20] Lin Dang, Zhen Ya Lei, Yong Jun Xie, Gao Li NIng, and Jun Fan, “A Compact Microstrip Slot Triple-Band Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol.9.,2010

[21] J. B. Pendry, A.J.Holden,, Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena, IEEE Transmission on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 47, no.11, 2075-2084, November 1999.

[22] Pradeep Kumar Dixena,ECE Dept.,IISc BangaloreStudy and design of Directional Ultra Wideband antenna in planar technology [23] J. Hong and M. J. Lancaster, Micro strip Filters for RF/Microw. Applications. New York: Wiley, 2001.

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22.

Association between ATTG insertion/deletion of NFкB1 (rs28362491) Gene Promoter and Coronary Artery Diseases

Authors: Jahanbakhsh Asadi, Arash Golalipour, Esmaeil Samadian, Ehsan Soleymaninejadian, Mohsen Kavian Telori, Hakimeh-Khatoun Fathi

Abstract_Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death in cardiovascular diseases. Many of the genes associated with the pathogenesis of CAD are regulated by Nuclear Factor кappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFкB). Proteins in NFкB family have a vital regulator for many cellular processes. NFкB transcription factors are one of the most important causes of inflammatory responses. Deletion of ATTG -94 NFкB1 gene promoters, decreases the levels of the protein subunits (P50 and p105) and as a result it affects the inflammatory responses. Those who are carrying this deletion may be at greater risk of CAD disease. In this research paper 250 people, 120 CAD patient and 130 people without any CAD symptoms, have been analyzed. Genomic DNAs from both groups have been extracted using salting out method. Then, the primer sequences were designed for NFкB1-94ATTG ins/del polymorphism using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Rs28362491 position was assessed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods in patients and controls. At the final stage of the project, the obtained data were analyzed using statistical Med Calc software (Version 12.1.4.0). The results showed that there was no significant difference in .The deletion and insertion ATTG alleles distribution among controls and patients. (P = 0.18)

Key words- CAD, NFкB1-94ATTG ins/del olymorphism, RFLP-P

References-

[1] Baudhuin LM., 2009. Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease: Focus on Genomewide Association Studies. Am J Transl Res. 1: 221-34.

[2] Boccardi V, Rizzo MR, Marfella R, Papa M, Esposito A, Portoghese M, Paolisso G, Barbieri M. 2011. -94 ins/del ATTG NFKB1 gene variant is associated with lower susceptibility to myocardial infarction. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 21(9) 679-84

[3] Borm ME, von Bodegraven AA, Mulder CJ, Kraal G, Bouma G. 2005. NFкB1 promoter polymorphism is involved in susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. Int J Immunogenet. 32(6), 401-5.

[4] Bourcier T, Sukhova G, Libby P. 1997.The nuclear factor kappa-B signaling pathway participates in dysregulation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in human atherosclerosis. J Biol Chem. 272 (25):15817-24.

[5] Clilton RJ. 2004. Pathophysiology of Coronary Heart Disease: A Brief Review. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 104 (9), 5- 8.

[6] Cao S, Zhang X, Edwards JP, Mosser DM. 2006. NFkappaB1 (p50) homodimers differentially regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 281(36), 26041-50.

[7] De Winther MP, Kanters E, Kraal G, Hofker MH. 2005. Nuclear factor kappaB signaling in atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 25(5), 904–14.

[8] Fontaine-Bisson B, Wolever TM, Connelly PW, Corey PN, El-Sohemy A. 2009. NFkappaB -94 Ins/Del ATTG polymorphism modifies the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and HDL-cholesterol in two distinct populations. Atherosclerosis. 204(2), 465–70.

[9] Frantz S, Hu K, Bayer B, Gerondakis S, Strotmann J, Adamek A, Ertl G, Bauersachs J. 2006. Absence of NFkappaB subunit p50 improves heart failure after myocardial infarction. FASEB J. 20(11), 1918-1920.

[10] Hansson GK. 2005. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 352(16), 1685-95.

[11] Karban AS, Okazaki T, Panhuysen CI, Gallegos T, Potter JJ, Bailey-Wilson JE, Silverberg MS, Duerr RH, Cho JH, Gregersen PK, Wu Y, Achkar JP, Dassopoulos T, Mezey E, Bayless TM, Nouvet FJ, Brant SR. 2004. Functional annotation of a novel NFкB1 promoter polymorphism that increases risk for ulcerative colitis. Hum Mol Genet. 13(1), 35–45.

[12]Karin M, Delhase M. 2000. The I kappa B kinase (IKK) and NF-kappa B: Key Elements of Proinflammatory signalling. Semin Immunol. 12(1), 85-98.

[13]Kawamura N, Kubota T, Kawano S, Monden Y, Feldman AM, Tsutsui H, Takeshita A, Sunagawa K. 2005. Blockade of NF-kappaB improves cardiac function and survival without affecting inflammation in TNF-alpha induced cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 66(3), 520-9.

[14]Kawano S, Kubota T, Monden Y, Tsutsumi T, Inoue T, Kawamura N, Tsutsui H, Sunagawa K. 2006. Blockade of NF-kappaB improves cardiac function and survival after myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 291(3), H1337-44.

[15]Kop WJ, Gottdiener JS. 2005. The role of immune system parameters in the relationship with coronary artery disease. Psychosom Med. 67(Suppl 1) S37-S41.

[16]Lahiri DK, 1993. Schnabel B. DNA isolation by a rapid method from human blood samples: effects of MgCl2, EDTA, storage time, and temperature on DNA yield and quality. Biochem Genet. 31(7–8), 321–8.

[17]Lin SC, Lu SY, Lee SY, Lin CY, Chen CH, Chang KW. 2005. Areca (betel) nut extract activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-kappaB in oral keratinocytes. Int J Cancer. 116(4), 526-35.

[18]Lo SS, Chen JH, Wu CW, Lui WY. 2009. Functional polymorphism of NFKB1 promoter may correlate to the susceptibility of gastric cancer in aged patients. Surgery. 145(3), 280-5.

[19]Lusis AJ, Fogelman AM, Fonarow GC. 2004. Genetic basis of atherosclerosis: part I: new genes and pathways. Circulation.; 110(13), 1868-73.

[20] Pai JK, Pischon T, Ma J, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Joshipura K, Curhan GC, Rifai N, Cannuscio CC, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB. 2004. Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. N Engl J Med. 351(25), 2599–610.

[21] Park JY, Farrance IK, Fenty NM, Hagberg JM, Roth SM, Mosser DM, Wang MQ, Jo H, Okazaki T, Brant SR, Brown MD. 2007. NFкB1 promoter variation implicates shear-induced NOS3 gene expression and endothelial function in prehypertensives and stage I hypertensives. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 293(4),H2320–7.

[22] Pereira SG, Oakley F. 2008. Nuclear factor-kappaB1: regulation and function. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 40(8), 1425–30.

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23.

Amalgamation Performance Analysis of LCI and VSI fed Induction Motor Drive

Authors: Dilip Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, A. K. Srivastava

Abstract–In this paper combination of a load-commutated inverter (LCI) and a voltage-source inverter (VSI) are employed for performance analysis of induction motor drive. Performance of the drive has been evaluated through the different variation in reference speed and load torque. proposed LCI-based induction motor drives include the following Advantages: 1) sinusoidal motor phase current and voltage based on the instantaneous motor speed control; 2) fast dynamic response by the VSI operation; and 3) elimination of motor torque pulsation. LCI system improves the quality of output current and voltage waveforms and provides the faster dynamic responses. Matlab/Simulation results show the validity of the employed drive system.

Keywords- Diode rectifier, Induction motor, Load commutated inverter (LCI), SVPWM technique, Voltage source inverter (VSI).

References-

[1] Sangshin Kwak and Hamid A. Toliyat” A Hybrid Converter System for High-Performance Large Induction Motor Drives” IEEE transactions on energy conversion, vol. 20, no. 3,pp.504-511, September 2005.

[2] Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski and Niculina Patriciu” A Hybrid, CurrentSource/Voltage-Source Power Inverter Circuit” IEEE transactions on power electronics, vol. 16, no. 6,pp.866-871,november 2001.

[3]J. R. Espinoza and G. Joos, “A current-source-inverter-fed induction motor drive system with reduced losses,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol.34, no. 4, pp. 796– 805, Jul./Aug.1998.

[4] S. D. Umans and H. L. Hess, “Modeling and anaysis of the wanlass three phase induction motor configuration,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-102, no. 9, pp. 2912–2921, Sep. 1983.

[5] H. L. Hess, D. M. Divan, and Y. Xue, “Modulation strategies for a new SCR-based induction motor drive systems with a wide speed ranges,”IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1648–1655, Nov./Dec. 1994.

[6]H. Mok, S. K. Sul, and M. H. Park, “A load commutated inverter-fed induction motor drive system using a novel dc-side commutation circuit,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 736–745, May/Jun. 1994.

[7]B. Singh, K. B. Naik, and A. K. Goel, “Steady state of an inverter-fed induction motor employing natural Commutation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 117–123, Jan. 1990.

[8]A. Toliyat, N. Sultana, D. S. Shet, and J. C. Moreira, “Brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor drive system using load-commutated inverter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 831–837, Sep.1999.

[9]S. Nishikata and T. Kataoka, “Dynamic control of a self-controlled synchronous motor drive system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-20, no.3, pp. 598–604, May/Jun. 1984.

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24.

The Process of Optimal Code Generation and its Implementation in Parallel Processors

Authors: A. Alekhya, G. Manoj Someswar

Abstract-- The process of code generation is chiefly involved with three interrelated optimization tasks: instruction selection (with resource allocation), instruction scheduling and register allocation. For most of the architectures and in most situations, these tasks have been discovered to be NP-hard. A common approach for code generation includes solving each task separately, i.e. in a decoupled manner, which is easier from a software-engineering point of view. Phase-decoupled compilers generate good code quality for regular architectures, but if applied to DSPs the generated code results in with significantly lower performance due to strong interdependences between the different tasks. Generating code for DSPs drives to afford spending considerable resources in time and space on optimizations. Generating efficient code for irregular architectures requires an integrated method that optimizes simultaneously for instruction selection, instruction scheduling, and register allocation. Moreover, embedded systems have turned a prevalent part of our dialy life and this trend is very unlikely to decline anytime soon. Traditional superscalar techniques require for a 2–3× speedup in performance very roughly about an increase of 80× in area and, maybe even more important, about 12× in power consumption. For numerous mobile applications with critical energy and cost requirements, this is a cost too high to bear. As such, the generation of code for parallel processing systems has been, and remains, an important area of research. The principal aim of this thesis is to explore the processes of optimal code generation and how they are implemented in parallel processors besides elaborating the challenges and possible solutions in this arena.

Keywords-- optimal instruction scheduling, semiconductor technology, parallel processing, code generation framework, ILP architecture

References-

[1] C. V. Ramamoorthy and M. J. Gonzalez. A survey of techniques for recognizing parallel processable streams in computer programs. Proc. AFIPS Fall Joint Computin2 Conference (1969).

[2] S. Jain. Circular scheduling: a new technique to perform software pipelining. Proc, ACM SIGPLAN '91 Conference on Pro~rammin2 Lan~ua~e Desi~n and Implementation (June 1991).

[3] 193, M. Smotherman, S. Krishnamurthy, P. S. Aravind and D. Hunnicutt. Efficient DAG construction and heuristic calculation for instruction scheduling. Proc. 24th Annual International Workshop on MicrQarchitecure (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 1991).

[4] S. Ramakrishnan. Software pipelining in PA-RISC compilers. Hewlett-Packard Journal (July 1992).

[5] R. Sethi and J. D. Ullman. The generation of optimal code for arithmetic expressions, JQurnal Qfthe ACM 17 (October 1970).

[6] Bengt Johnsson, Bertil Andersson: The Human- Computer Interface in Commercial Systems, 1981, ISBN 91-7372-414-9.

[7] H. Jan Komorowski: A Specification of an Ab- stract Prolog Machine and its Application to Partial Evaluation, 1981, ISBN 91- 7372-479-3.

[8] René Reboh: Knowledge Engineering Techniques and Tools for Expert Systems, 1981, ISBN 91- 7372-489-0. 222

[9] Östen Oskarsson: Mechanisms of Modifiability in large Software Systems, 1982, ISBN 91-7372-527- 7.

[10] Hans Lunell: Code Generator Writing Systems, 1983, ISBN 91- 7372-652-4.

[11] Andrzej Lingas: Advances in Minimum Weight Triangulation, 1983, ISBN 91-7372-660-5.

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25.

Visual Up gradation of Degraded Document Images

Authors: Swapna Halder, Sudipta Das

Abstract- All over the World millions of historical documents are stored in Government record offices, museums, libraries and many other places. Now, these documents, originally, are frequently found in degraded conditions due to poor storage over large spans of time. Thus the documents are often difficult to human eyes to decipher. In order to emphasis preservation of those delicate documents as well as to provide easier access to scholars and researchers, those are now-a-days being scanned and preserved as document images. So, these documents are processed specially to remove damages and degradation and thus to make the document visually sound. This paper uses the image processing techniques which includes filtering, thresholding and image refinement in order to solve the problem of visual up gradation of degraded document images. Keywords- Binarization, Filtering, Image, Threshold.

References-

[1] Otsu, N.: ‘A threshold selection method from grey level histogram’, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., 1979, 9, (1), pp. 62–66

[2] Cheriet, M.: ‘Extraction of handwritten data from noisy grey-level images using a multi-scale approach’, Int. J. Pattern Recognit. Artif. Intell., 1999, 13, (5), pp. 665–685

[3] Kitter, J.; and Illingworth, J. 1986. Minimum error thresholding. Pattern Recognition 19 (1): 41-7, January – February.

[4] Don, H.S.: ‘A noise attribute thresholding method for document image binarization’. Proc. Int. Conf. on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR), 1995, pp. 231–234

[5] Solihin, Y., and Leedham, C.G.: ‘Integral ratio: a new class of global thresholding techniques for handwriting images’, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 1999, 21, (8), pp. 761–768

[6] Niblack, W.: ‘An introduction to digital image processing’ (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1986), pp. 115–116

[7] Zhang, Z., and Tan, C.L.: ‘Restoration of images scanned from thick bound documents’. Proc. Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP), 2001, Vol. 1, pp. 1074–1077

[8] Sauvola, M. Pietikäinen, Adaptive document image binarization, Pattern Recognition, Volume 33, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 225- 236, ISSN 0031-3203

[9] Bernsen, J.: ‘Dynamic thresholding of grey level images’. Proc. Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 1986, pp. 1251–1255

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26.

Durable Stainless Steel Tubes for Exhaust System

Authors: S.Rajadurai, J. Rejin Jose, B.Harinivas, S.Ananth

Abstract— The demanding high mileage warranty requirements mandate stainless steel tubes to be mechanically and thermally durable. This paper deals with the requirements of the coated and uncoated stainless steel tubes for the sustainability in the exhaust system. Manufacturing process, sheet metal dimensions, high frequency welding parameters, roller and cutting tools play vital role in the effective utilization of stainless steel tubes. Mechanical, chemical and microscopic analysis had been performed to prove the durability of the stainless steel tubes. Tube flaring test performed up to 50% expansion showed no damage across the seam of the tube proving the survivability and stability for any operations such as forming, stamping etc. Flatness test performed showed no defects on the tubes both on the base material and across the seam. Yield strength measurement with varying thickness and diameter of different materials had been compared.

Keywords—Chemical, High frequency, Mechanical, Microscopic analysis, Roller, Stainless steel, Flattening, Flaring.

References-

[1] James.M,‘Welded or seamless heat exchanger tubes that is the question’.In: www.rathmfg.com, E. I. Dupont, Houston, Texas, 4 pp.

[2] SMI-Steel Market Intelligence GmbH. ‘The world market for welded stainless steel tube & pipe’, Market Update 2009. In: www.steel-intelligence.com

[3] Janikowski, D. S. & Roth, R. Stainless steel feedwater and condenser tubing – expectations, results and choices. In: Proc. EPRI FeedwaterHeaterTechnology Seminar, Memphis, TN, 2007, 16pp.

[4] Salzgitter Mannesmann Stainless Tubes.In: http://www.smsttubes.com/en/products services/production/

[5] O’Donnell, D. & James, M. When to specify welded, welded and drawn or seamless tubing.Welding Journal, v. 87, June p. 52–55, 2008.

[6] HPS® Tubing. Seamed vs. seamless tubing.MKS HPS® products, Boulder, CO.In: www.mksinst.com.

[7] Paijkull&Nytomt, S. The use of stainless steel grades intubular products. Stainless steel world, v. 20, December p. 71–79, 2008.

[8] Cordon, W. A., Properties Evaluation, and Control of Engineering Materials, McGraw-Hill,New York, 1979.

[9] Eisenstadt, M. M., Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Materials, Macmillan, New York, 1971.

[10] High frequency welding of stainless steel tubing,H.N. Udahland R.K. Nichols, Thermatool Corp. Internal report.

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27.

Performance Analysis of Fading and Interference over MIMO Systems in Wireless Networks

Authors: Hadimani.H.C, Mrityunjaya.V. Latte

Abstract—The interlaced challenges faced by the wireless network are fading and interference. Fading (information loss) is a random variation of the channel strength with time, geographical position and/or radio frequency due to environmental effects. Due to this, the received signals have random amplitude, phase, and angle of arrival. Interference limits the capacity of spectral resource. Fading can be mitigated with cooperative transmission, as it helps to achieve diversity among users, whereas Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technique exploits interference by jointly processing the user data and thus increases the data rate in wireless network. The most significant reasons for the use of MIMO techniques are: to increase the maximum data rate, to extend the coverage, and to serve a larger number of users. While wireless broadband necessarily ensures end users are always connected on the move, the limitation on the bandwidth that can be consumed is strikingly several factors lower than that in a connected wire-line network. This makes us to deep see the reasons and thereby the need to grind the average fades duration (AFD) and the level crossing rate (LCR) which results in path loss. The use of multiple antennas causes the amplitude and phase fluctuation and time delay in the received signal, which causes fading of the signal. Mobile radio communication manifests with two types fading effects: large-scale and small-scale fading. In this paper, we have considered Rayleigh (Large-scale) fading channel for mobile radio networks.

Keywords—AFD, LCR, MIMO, Modeling, Path loss, Rayleigh -fading, Wireless mobile networks.

References-

[1] Paolo barsocchi, national research council, ISTI institute,channel models for terrestrial wireless communications: a survey.

[2] GeorgeW. Webb, IgorMinin, and OlegMinin – SPIE, Eliminating multipath fading improves wireless signal Reception.

[3] Ali keyvani, 2003, modelling and simulation of a fading channel

[4] 1swati chowdhuri, 2dr. Arunkumarmondal and 3dr. P.k.baneerjee, International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.2, No.4, July 2011, fading analysis of mimo based mobile adhoc Networks.

[5] Bernard Sklar, Communications Engineering Services, IEEE Communications Magazine • July 1997 ,Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication Systems, Part I: Characterization.

[6] S.Muthukumar and V.Nagarajan,, Multi User MIMO Cooperation for Wireless Network : A Survey

[7] Bamrung Tau Sieskul, Student Member, IEEE, Feng Zheng, Senior Member, IEEE, andThomas Kaiser, Senior Member, IEEE,” , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 57, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009, On the Effect of Shadow Fading on WirelessGeolocation in Mixed LoS/NLoS Environments

[8] Tom Irvine, December 3, 2012 ,The Rayleigh Distribution.

[9] TasosAlexandridis, Fitting data into probability distributions

[10] Ranjan Kumar Rath,, adaptive mimo technology for 4g

[11] ZhiRena,GuangyuWanga, Qianbin Chen a, Hongbin Li b, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 19 (2011) 626–637, Modeling and simulation of Rayleigh fading, path loss, and shadowing fading for wireless mobile networks

[12] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062-3080, Dec. 2004, Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behavior

160-167
28.

Kinematic and Finite Element Analysis of a Master Slave Manipulator Gripper

Authors: Shilpa bhambure, K.Jayarajan, V.S.Narwane

Abstract— Nuclear industry employs many remote handling tools for handling objects in radioactive environments. In Mechanical Master-Slave Manipulators (MSM) when the operator grasps the hand grip and manipulates the master arm, the motion of the master arm is reproduced by the slave arm, performing the desired manipulation task remotely. MSM is powered and controlled by human operator. Therefore the power that can be delivered by MSM is limited by the power of an operator. It demands efficient mechanisms and optimized design of the manipulator and its components. The paper aims at improving the design of gripping mechanism. Stress analysis is carried out for MSM gripper using FEM for finding the stresses in various components of mechanism when the gripper is holding the known weight.

Keywords— Master-slave Manipulator, hot cells, gripper.

References-

[1] Dr. Anta1 K. Bejczy , ‘Teleoperation, Telerobotics’

[2] D.J. Todd, ‘Fundamentals of Robot Technology An Introduction to industrial Robots, Teleoperators and Robot Vehicles’

[3] K. Jayarajan, and Manjit Singh, 2006 “Master-Slave Manipulators: Technology and Recent Developments”, BARC News Letter, Issue No. 269, pp. 2-12.

[4] K. Jayarajan , 2012 ‘Advances in the Remote handling Technology in Nuclear industry’

[5] Samson Khoo, Hock Chye, 2008 ‘Design and Analysis of robot gripper for 10 kg payload’

[6] Kong Y., Song Y., Jung M Lee, 2011 “Effects of hand position on maximum grip strength and discomfort” Ergonomics Australia HFESA Conference

[7] Vaibhav Raghav, Jitender Kumar and Shailesh S.Senger, 2012 ‘Design and optimization of robotic gripper: A Review’ Conference on Trends and Advances in Mechanical Engineering

[8] Philippe Coiffet ‘Robot Technology Interaction with the Environment’ Vol 2

[9] Jean Vertut, Philippe Coiffet ‘Teleoperation and Robotics Evolution and Development’ Vol. 3A

168-174
29.

Seismic Gabor Deconvolution and the Color Correction to White-Reflectivity Assumption

Authors: M.S Saravanan, Hesham Abu Haleemah, P.K Kumaresan

Abstract— Deconvolution is an essential part of seismic data processing. The deconvolution algorithm is derived from the corresponding convolution model. Conventional deconvolution methods are developed based on the stationary convolution model, such as Wiener spiking deconvolution. However, the seismic trace is nonstationary due to attenuation during the propagation for various reasons such as attenuation and geometric spreading. Deconvolution algorithms usually assume that the reflectivity is a random series, meaning that reflectivity has a white amplitude spectrum. In practice, the reflectivity is colored, i.e., the magnitude of its Fourier amplitude spectrum demonstrates obvious frequency dependency. The white reflectivity assumption can lead to distortion of reflectivity estimation. The nonstationary characteristic of both seismic trace and true reflectivity can be corrected in a nonstationary way. This chapter gives a basic introduction to Gabor deconvolution, and presents the color correction method to white-reflectivity assumption for Gabor deconvolution. The influence of the time-variant reflectivity color is analyzed in detail, and synthetic data and field data are used to evaluate the color correction method.

Keywords— Dconvolution, Gabor, seismic trace.

References-

[1] Aki, K., and Richard, P. G., 1980, Quantitative Seismology, W. H. Freeman and Co.,San Fransisco.

[2] Banik .N. C., Lerche, I., and Shuey, R. T., 1985, Stratigraphic filtering, Part 1: Derivation of the O’Doherty- Anstey formula: Geophysics, 50: 2768 – 2774.

[3] Bath, M., 1974, Spectral analysis in geophysics: Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics, Vol 7, and Elsevier Science Publishing Co.

[4] Blanch, J. O., Robertsson, J. O. A., and Symes, W. W., 1993, Viscoelastic finite-difference modeling: Tech. Rep, 93-04, Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University.

[5] Cheng, P., and Margrave, G. F., 2011c, Color correction for Gabor deconvolution: a test with field data: 2011 CSPG CSEG CWLS convention, abstract.

[6] Christensen, R. M., 1982, Theory of viscoelasticity – An introduction: Academic Press, Inc. Clark, G. K. C., 1968, Timevarying deconvolution filters: Geophysics, 33, 936-944.

[7] Dasgupta, R., and Clark, R. A., 1998, Estimation of from surface seismic reflection data: Geophysics, 63, 2120-2128.

[8] Engelhard, L., 1996, Determination of the seismic wave attenuation by complex trace analysis: Geophysical Journal International, 125, 608-622.

[9] Frazer, L. N., 1978, Synthesis of shear-coupled PL: Ph.D thesis, Princeton University.

[10] Frazer, L. N., and Gettrust, J. F., 1984, On a generalization of Filon’s method and the computation of oscillatory integrals of seismology: Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 72, 193-211.

[11] Griffiths, L. J., F. R. Smolka, and L. D. Trembly, 1977, Adaptive deconvolution: A new technique for processing time-varying seismic data: Geophysics, 42, 742-759.

[12] Hackert, C. L., and Parra, J. O., 2004, Improving estimates from seismic reflection data using well-log-based localized spectral correction: Geophysics, 69, 1521-1529.

[13] Kennett, B. L. N., 1975, the effect of attenuation on seismograms: Bull. Seis. Soc. of Am., 43, 17-34.

[14] Margrave, G. F., M. P. Lamoureux, and D. C. Henley, 2011, Gabor deconvolution: Estimating reflectivity by nonstationary deconvolution of seismic data: Geophysics, 76, W15- W30.

[15] Murchy, W. F. III, 1982, Effects of partial saturation on attenuation in Massilon sandstone and Vycor porous glass: J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 71, 1458-1468.

[16] Pratt, R. G., and Worthington, M. H., 1990, Inversion theory applied to multisource crosshole tomography. Part I: Acoustic waveequation method: Geophys. Prosp., 38, 287-310.

[17] Quan, Y., and Harris, J. M., 1997, Seismic attenuation tomography using the frequency shift method: Geophysics, 62, 895-905.

[18] Raikes, S. A., and R. E. White, 1984, Measurements of earth attenuation from downhole and surface seismic recordings: Geophysical Prospecting, 32, 892-919.

[19] Robertsson, J. O. A., Blanch, J. O., and Symes, W. W., 1994, Viscoelastic finite-difference modeling: Geophysics, 59, 1444-1456.

[20] EOS, Trans., Am. Geophys. Union, 59, 324.

[21] Slepian, D., 1978, Prolate spheroidal wave function, Fourier analysis, and uncertainty – V: The Discrete case: Bell Syst. Tech. J., 57, 1371- 1429.

[22] Song, S., and K. A.Innanen, 2002, Multiresolution modeling and wavefield reconstruction in attenuating media: Geophysics, 67, 1192–1201.

[23] Spudich, P., and Ascher, U., 1983, Calculation of complete theoretical seismograms in vertically varying media using collocation methods: Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 75, 101-24.

[24] Strick, E., 1967, the determination of , dynamic viscosity and creep curves from wave propagation measurements: Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc., 13, 197-218.

[25] Sun, X., X. Tang, C. H. Cheng, and L. N. Frazer, 2000, P- and Swave attenuation logs from monopole sonic data: Geophysics, 65, 755-765.

175-181
30.

Performance Analysis of Fading and Interference over MIMO Systems in Wireless Networks

Authors: Hadimani.H.C, Mrityunjaya.V. Latte

Abstract—The interlaced challenges faced by the wireless network are fading and interference. Fading (information loss) is a random variation of the channel strength with time, geographical position and/or radio frequency due to environmental effects. Due to this, the received signals have random amplitude, phase, and angle of arrival. Interference limits the capacity of spectral resource. Fading can be mitigated with cooperative transmission, as it helps to achieve diversity among users, whereas Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technique exploits interference by jointly processing the user data and thus increases the data rate in wireless network. The most significant reasons for the use of MIMO techniques are: to increase the maximum data rate, to extend the coverage, and to serve a larger number of users. While wireless broadband necessarily ensures end users are always connected on the move, the limitation on the bandwidth that can be consumed is strikingly several factors lower than that in a connected wire-line network. This makes us to deep see the reasons and thereby the need to grind the average fades duration (AFD) and the level crossing rate (LCR) which results in path loss. The use of multiple antennas causes the amplitude and phase fluctuation and time delay in the received signal, which causes fading of the signal. Mobile radio communication manifests with two types fading effects: large-scale and small-scale fading. In this paper, we have considered Rayleigh (Large-scale) fading channel for mobile radio networks.

Keywords—AFD, LCR, MIMO, Modeling, Path loss, Rayleigh -fading, Wireless mobile networks.

Reference-

[1] Paolo barsocchi, national research council, ISTI institute,channel models for terrestrial wireless communications: a survey.

[2] GeorgeW. Webb, IgorMinin, and OlegMinin – SPIE, Eliminating multipath fading improves wireless signal Reception.

[3] Ali keyvani, 2003, modelling and simulation of a fading channel

[4] 1swati chowdhuri, 2dr. Arunkumarmondal and 3dr. P.k.baneerjee, International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.2, No.4, July 2011, fading analysis of mimo based mobile adhoc Networks.

[5] Bernard Sklar, Communications Engineering Services, IEEE Communications Magazine • July 1997 ,Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication Systems, Part I: Characterization.

[6] S.Muthukumar and V.Nagarajan,, Multi User MIMO Cooperation for Wireless Network : A Survey

[7] Bamrung Tau Sieskul, Student Member, IEEE, Feng Zheng, Senior Member, IEEE, andThomas Kaiser, Senior Member, IEEE,” , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 57, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009, On the Effect of Shadow Fading on WirelessGeolocation in Mixed LoS/NLoS Environments

[8] Tom Irvine, December 3, 2012 ,The Rayleigh Distribution.

[9] TasosAlexandridis, Fitting data into probability distributions

[10] Ranjan Kumar Rath,, adaptive mimo technology for 4g

[11] ZhiRena,GuangyuWanga, Qianbin Chen a, Hongbin Li b, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 19 (2011) 626–637, Modeling and simulation of Rayleigh fading, path loss, and shadowing fading for wireless mobile networks

[12] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062-3080, Dec. 2004, Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behavior

182-191
31.

Human Recognition through Ear Biometrics using Average Ear Approach

Authors: Gopal Singh Tandel, Soumya Mukherjee, Om prakash Patel

Abstract Human ear has attracted researcher’s attention recently due to its stable biometrics nature. In this paper, we have implemented human recognition system through 2D ear images and proposed a novel algorithm for human recognition by ear based on average ear method. Algorithm is tested on University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB) data set of 60 subjects on 180 ear images. We have also discussed different sources of freely available data base and finding of various authors in the same direction. This paper is very useful for those who are budding researches in this area

Keywords: - Ear Biometrics, Ear Signature, Average Ear Image, Feature Extraction.

References-

[1] Basit, A., Javed, M. Y. and Anjum, M. A., “Efficient iris recognition method for human identification”, ENFORMATIKA, pp. 24-26, vol 1, 2005.

[2] Moreno, B., Sanchez, A., Velez, J., F., “On the Use of Outer Ear Images for Personal Identification in Security Applications”, IEEE 33rd Annual International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, pp. 469-476, 1999.

[3] Jain, A., Hong, L., Pankati, S., “Biometric Identification”, Communications of the ACM, vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 91-98, 2000.

[4] Iannarelli, A., in: “Ear Identification”, Paramont Publishing, 1989.

[5] Victor, B., Bowyer, K., and Sarkar, S., “An Evaluation of Face and Ear Biometrics,” Proc. 16th Int’l Conf. Pattern Recognition, pp. 429- 432, 2002.

[6] Durgesh Singh*, Sanjay K. Singh “A Survey on Human Ear Recognition System Based on 2D and 3D Ear Images” OPEN JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SECURITY AND APPLICATIONS ISSN (Print): 2374- 6262 ISSN(Online): 2374-6289, Volume 1, Number 2, September 2013

[7] Chen, H., and Bhanu, B., “Contour Matching for 3D Ear Recognition”, Proc. Seventh IEEE Workshop Application of Computer Vision, pp. 123-128, 2005.

[8] Raposo R, Hoyle E, Peixinho A, Proenca H. 'UBEAR: A dataset of ear images captured on-the-move in uncontrolled conditions'. In: Computational Intelligence in Biometrics and Identity Management (CIBIM), 2011 IEEE Workshop on; 2011.p. 84-90.

[9] Burge M, Burger W. 13. In: Jain AK, Bolle R, Pankanti S, editors. 'E Biometrics'.Springer US; 1998. p. 273- 285..

[10] Chang K, Bowyer KW, Sarkar S, Victor B. 'Comparison and Combination of Ear and Face Images in Appearance-Based Biometrics'. IEEE Transactions in Pattern Anallysis and Machine Intelligene. 2003 September;25:1160-1165.

[11] Yuan L, Mu Z. 'Ear Recognition Based on 2D Images'. In: First IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems (BTAS); 2007. p. 1-5.

[12] Xie Z, Mu Z. 'Ear Recognition Using LLE and IDLLE Algorithm'. In: 19th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR); 2008. p. 1-4.

[13] Zhang Z. , Liu H. 2008. Multi-View ear recognition based on b-spline pose manifold construction. In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation.

[14] Hurley DJ, Nixon MS, Carter JN. 'Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction'. Image and Vision Computing. 2002;20(5-6):311 - 317.

[15] Abdel-Mottaleb M, Zhou J. 'Human Ear Recognition from Face Prole Images'.In: Zhang D, Jain A, editors. Advances in Biometrics. vol. 3832 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg; 2005. p. 786-792.

[16] Dong J, Mu Z. 'Multi-Pose Ear Recognition Based on Force Field Transformation'. In: Second International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application (IITA). vol. 3; 2008. p. 771 -775.

[17] Choras M. 'Perspective Methods of Human Identication: Ear Biometrics'. Opto Electronics Review. 2008;16:85-96.

[18] Kumar A., Zhang D. 2007. Ear authentication using log-gabor wavelets. In SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Vol. 6539

[19] Abate AF, Nappi M, Riccio D, Ricciardi S. 'Ear Recognition by means of aRotationInvariant Descriptor'. In: 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, ICPR 2006.. vol. 4; 2006. p. 437 -440.

[20] SANA, A. AND GUPTA, P. 2007. Ear biometrics: A new approach. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition.

[21] HAILONG, Z. AND MU, Z. 2009. Combining wavelet transform and orthogonal centroid algorithm for ear recognition. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology.

[22] Nosrati M, Faez K, Faradji F. 2007. Using 2D wavelet and principal component analysis for personal identification based on 2D ear structure. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems.

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